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The United States

Brenda Sternquist and Elizabeth B. Goldsmith

Source: International Retailing, 3rd Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

Fashion Politics and Practice: Indian Cottons and Consumer Innovation in Tokugawa Japan and Early Modern England, C. 1600–1800

Beverly Lemire

Source: Dress and Ideology. Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

textilescottonJapansixteenth–seventeenth centuriesEnglandsixteenth–seventeenth centuriesConsumerism, consumptionThe historical characteristics of consumer behavior have been the subject of intensive study for a generation.Among the pioneer studies see: Jan De Vries “Peasant Demand and Economic Development: Friesland 1559–1700,” in William Parker and E. L. Jones eds, European Peasants and their Markets, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975; Economic Policy and Projects: The Development of a

Dress as Political Ideology in Rabelais and Voltaire Utopias

Shoshana-rose Marzel

Source: Dress and Ideology. Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

François Rabelais (1494–1553), a major French RenaissanceRenaissance writer and humanist, dedicated five novels to a family of giants and their adventures. Although these books are written in an amusing and satirical vein, through them Rabelais denounces Middle Ages backwardness and promotes Renaissance values; according to David M. Posner, “[t]he comic or parodic aspects of the text are, for Rabelais, inseparable from the hermeneutic act, and are essential both to accurate reading and to a recog

Ideology, Fashion and the Darlys’ “Macaroni” Prints

Peter Mcneil

Source: Dress and Ideology. Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Painted caricatures began on the “Grand TourGrand Tour” as private jokes shared between young men and their tutors. Private Italian painters working in Florence inspired the English development of this field. Etchings were made by Pier Leone Ghezzi (1674–1755) and Pietro Longhi (1702–85), and painted in Rome by English artists including Sir Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Patch (1725–82). Horace Walpole wrote in his journal thus: “Patch was excellent in Caricatura, and was in much favour with the youn

The Birth of Paris Fashion

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Le travail des modes est un art: art chéri, triomphant, qui dans ce siècle, a reçu des honneurs, des distinctions. Cet art entre dans le palais des Rois, [et] y reçoit un accueil flatteur.

Liberty of Dress

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Nulle personne de l’un ou de l’autre sexe ne pourra contraindre aucun citoyen ni citoyenne à se vêtir d’une manière particulière, chacun étant libre de porter tel vêtement et ajustement de son sexe que bon lui semblera, sous peine d’être considéré et traité comme suspect, et poursuivi comme perturbateur du repos public.

Fashion in Balzac’s Paris

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

La toilette est l’expression de la société.

The Black Prince of Elegance

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Eternelle superiorité du Dandy.

Fashioning the Parisienne

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

J’ai sous les yeux une série de gravures de mode. Ces costumes presentent un charme d’une nature double, artistique et historique.

Capital of Luxury and Fashion

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Je suis un grand artist, j’ai la couleur de Delacroix, et je compose. Une toilette vaut un tableau.

The Theater of Fashion

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Nous savons donc beaucoup de gré à mademoiselle Nathalie des sacrifices qu’elle fait pour ses costumes; de beaux habits sur de jolies femmes, rien n’est plus charmant.

The Private Life of Paris

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Dans ces sphères élevés le role de la femme est tout de charme et de seduction. Elle n’a d’autres devoirs à remplir que ceux qui lui sont imposés sous le nom des devoirs de société.

La Mode Retrouvée

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Chacune de ses robes m’apparaissait comme une ambiance naturelle, nécessaire, comme la projection d’un aspect particulier de son âme.

Breastfeeding, Ideology and Clothing in Nineteenth-Century France

Gal Ventura

Source: Dress and Ideology. Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The human species has always been dependent on breastfeeding, at least until the last third of the nineteenth century, when Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) invented the pasteurization of animal milk to be used to feed infants. Indeed, while examining artistic depictions of infant feeding through Western history, bottle-feeding was extremely rare in comparison to nursing women.See for example: Hubert Robert, Jeune femme tenant un biberon à un bébé, 1773, oil on canvas, 22 x 27 cm, Valence, Musée des Bea

John Galliano, Graduate Collection, “Les Incroyables” 1984

Paula Alaszkiewicz

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

While studying languages at City and East London College in Whitechapel, London, John Galliano took various design and drawing classes. His tutors encouraged him to apply to the foundation course at Saint Martin’s School of Art (later Central Saint Martins). His application was successful, and through illustration courses he found fashion design. Outside of classes, Galliano worked as sales assistant at Topshop, as a dresser at the National Theatre, and learned tailoring skills as an apprentice f

Traje De Crioula: Representing Nineteenth-Century Afro-Brazilian Dress

Aline T. and Monteiro Damgaard

Source: Dress History. New Directions in Theory and Practice, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

This chapter examines representations of Afro-Brazilian dress from nineteenth-century Brazil with the aim of examining the traje de crioula’s origin, formation and influence. The research includes comparative analysis of a broad range of nineteenth-century visual representations and written descriptions alongside analysis of surviving garments currently held in museum collections, and their subsequent interpretation and display. To present a case study for this chapter, a sample of four images is

A Brief Overview of Modern Designing

Karl Aspelund

Source: Designing. An Introduction, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Designers Speak

Dress, Self-Fashioning and Display at the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum

Christine Guth

Source: Dress History. New Directions in Theory and Practice, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Isabella Stewart Gardner negotiated a prominent public position for herself in Boston through the establishment of a museum that promoted a different attitude towards art than those founded with the aim of educating the public. She assembled her collection as an individual, producing a competing, but equally ideologically motivated account of what she regarded as art. Her collection embraced the cultures of Europe and Asia, but also gave recognition to products of female craft such as lace. While

All Out in the Wash: Convict Stain Removal in the Narryna Heritage Museum’s Dress Collection

Jennifer Clynk and Sharon Peoples

Source: Dress History. New Directions in Theory and Practice, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

This study extends historian Stefan Petrow’s 2009 study of the convict stain and Narryna by suggesting ways in which its effects can be overcome or reinterpreted, especially in relation to dress. The metaphor of the convict stain relates to a social stigma dating from the 1840s, when anti-transportationists in VDL began a fierce political and moral campaign against convict transportation to the colony. The stain metaphor was a nineteenth-century term applied by historians from the 1850s through t

Gloves ‘of the Very Thin Sort’: Gifting Limerick Gloves in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries

Liza Foley

Source: Dress History. New Directions in Theory and Practice, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Although leather was essential for the production of a wide range of eighteenth-century objects, including gloves, very little consideration has been given to the significance of the materiality of leather itself. As historian Giorgio Riello has shown, leather was a scarce material in pre-Industrial England. ‘Confined to the natural world and to a stable cattle asset’ (2008: 77), its production largely depended on the meat market, which, in the case of sheep, and to a greater extent cattle, accou

Fetish

Frenchy Lunning

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

This article discusses the origins and history of fetish fashions (and gives an explanation of forms and functions) from the late nineteenth century to the early twenty-first century. Beginning with late nineteenth-century Paris, when these forms came into play, it tracks the development through modernist culture and into the postmodern culture of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, noting the similar cultural conditions of gender instabilities and roles. It explains how fetish f

The Empress’s Old Clothes: Biographies of African Dress at the Victoria And Albert Museum

Nicola Stylianou

Source: Dress History. New Directions in Theory and Practice, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

On 20 April 1869 the V&A accessioned a number of objects from Ethiopia including clothes and jewellery that were listed in the museum register as having been given to the museum by the ‘Secretary of State for India’ and ‘belonging formerly to the Queen of Abyssinia’ (V&A 1869). At this time the V&A had not yet been divided into departments with objects being accepted for inclusion in the museum on the grounds of design excellence or as demonstrations of particular techniques. Included in this gif

The Eighteenth Century 1700–1790

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Upon the death of Louis XIV in 1715, his great-grandson, Louis XV, became king of France at the age of 5. During the time that the king was too young to reign alone, a period called the Regency (1715–1723), baroque art styles that had dominated in the previous century underwent a gradual change. The new style lines were less massive, the curves were more slender and delicate, and an emphasis on asymmetrical balance gained importance. This new, rococo, style reached its height during the reign of

The Directoire Period and the Empire Period 1790–1820

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The Directoire period (c. 1790–1800) includes the French Revolution and the establishment of the Directory (in French, Directoire), a government by a five-man executive body. The Empire period followed, coinciding generally with the period during which Napoleon Bonaparte was head of state in France. Indeed, the name of the period derives from the name of his era, the Napoleonic empire.

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