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Introduction

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Exploring contemporary fashion imagery shows that the mythical or stereotypical connotations of tweeds form a useful starting point for a deeper investigation into their history. For example, an advertisementsadvertisement in Vogue magazinesVogue for Lauren, RalphRalph Lauren’s autumn/winter 2012 womenswear collection featured outfits that were strongly influenced by British country house partiescountry clothing and 1920s fashion, including fitted jackets and jodhpurs in tweed, worn with “mannish

Origins and Early Development of Tweed to 1850

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Gulvin, CliffordGulvin argues that improvements made in the Scottish woolen industry between 1770 and the late 1820s helped to lay the foundations for the later successful development of tweed production. Prior to the 1770s, the production of woolens in Scotland was considerably less advanced than that of its neighbor England in terms of its economic success and the quality of its cloths. By the late eighteenth century, England had long been renowned for producing fine broadclothsbroadcloths, whi

Tweed, Male Fashion, and Modern Masculinities, 1851–1918

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Tweed trouserstrousers in “shepherd’s check” patternshepherd’s checks and other fancy woolensfancy patterns remained popular in Britain and Europe in the 1850s and 1860s.JamesLocke, “A Few Facts on the Tweed Trade,” The Border Advertiser, September 18, 1863, p. 3; CliffordGulvin, The Tweedmakers: A History of the Scottish Fancy Woollen Industry 1600–1914 (Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1973), p. 80; FaridChenoune, A History of Men’s Fashion (Paris: Flammarion, 1993), pp. 84–5. The Juror’s Report

Tweed, Femininity, and Fashion, 1851–1918

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Prior to the early 1850s, Scottish woolen manufacturers predominantly catered to the ladies’ trade through the weaving of shawls and fine, merino dress fabrics that were known as ““cloakings”cloakings,” as noted in Chapter 3. In 1863, Locke, JamesJames Locke described recent changes in the Scottish woolen industryScottish woolen industry, by stating: The Scotch tweed trade then may be divided into three distinct sections- viz. tweeds, shawlsshawls, and cloakings. The last of these came to their c

Neither East Nor West: Japanese Fashion in Modernity

Toby Slade

Source: Modern Fashion Traditions. Negotiating Tradition and Modernity through Fashion, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Toby Slade analyses how the opening up of Japan during the Meiji period (1868–1912) resulted in the abolition of feudal sumptuary laws as a product of economic and social embourgeoisement that transformed aesthetic tastes. In particular, it resulted in the popularization of samurai tastes that were previously the province of the elite. One sign of this was the availability of imported fine textiles such as cotton and silk to ordinary people who embraced the spirit of modernity and expressed throu

The United States

Brenda Sternquist and Elizabeth B. Goldsmith

Source: International Retailing, 3rd Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

Introduction

Carol Tulloch

Source: The Birth of Cool. Style Narratives of the African Diaspora, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

I once asked my father if it became compulsory for all men to wear flared trousers, what would he do? He replied, “Go in the nuddy [nude]”. I laughed at his response, thinking he was just old fashioned. I must have been about eleven or twelve and my idea of a well-dressed man came in the form of Jimi Hendrix who reigned supreme in such pants. This was the period of revolutionary dress for the young.

Angel in the Market Place: The African-Jamaican Higgler 1880–1907

Carol Tulloch

Source: The Birth of Cool. Style Narratives of the African Diaspora, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

higgler (market trader): “A Jamaican Lady” postcardcritical draw ofLike many other African-Jamaicans featured on postcards during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, this woman’s personal details are lost to us. There is no way of knowing her age. She could be anywhere between forty and sixty. What is suggested that if she was closer to sixty, she was an ex-slave, and if nearer to forty, then her parents were enslaved. Either way, this woman had a direct link to the pre-emancipation

Fashion in Balzac’s Paris

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

La toilette est l’expression de la société.

The Black Prince of Elegance

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Eternelle superiorité du Dandy.

Fashioning the Parisienne

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

J’ai sous les yeux une série de gravures de mode. Ces costumes presentent un charme d’une nature double, artistique et historique.

Capital of Luxury and Fashion

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Je suis un grand artist, j’ai la couleur de Delacroix, et je compose. Une toilette vaut un tableau.

The Theater of Fashion

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Nous savons donc beaucoup de gré à mademoiselle Nathalie des sacrifices qu’elle fait pour ses costumes; de beaux habits sur de jolies femmes, rien n’est plus charmant.

The Private Life of Paris

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Dans ces sphères élevés le role de la femme est tout de charme et de seduction. Elle n’a d’autres devoirs à remplir que ceux qui lui sont imposés sous le nom des devoirs de société.

La Mode Retrouvée

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Chacune de ses robes m’apparaissait comme une ambiance naturelle, nécessaire, comme la projection d’un aspect particulier de son âme.

Breastfeeding, Ideology and Clothing in Nineteenth-Century France

Gal Ventura

Source: Dress and Ideology. Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The human species has always been dependent on breastfeeding, at least until the last third of the nineteenth century, when Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) invented the pasteurization of animal milk to be used to feed infants. Indeed, while examining artistic depictions of infant feeding through Western history, bottle-feeding was extremely rare in comparison to nursing women.See for example: Hubert Robert, Jeune femme tenant un biberon à un bébé, 1773, oil on canvas, 22 x 27 cm, Valence, Musée des Bea

Traje De Crioula: Representing Nineteenth-Century Afro-Brazilian Dress

Aline T. and Monteiro Damgaard

Source: Dress History. New Directions in Theory and Practice, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

This chapter examines representations of Afro-Brazilian dress from nineteenth-century Brazil with the aim of examining the traje de crioula’s origin, formation and influence. The research includes comparative analysis of a broad range of nineteenth-century visual representations and written descriptions alongside analysis of surviving garments currently held in museum collections, and their subsequent interpretation and display. To present a case study for this chapter, a sample of four images is

A Brief Overview of Modern Designing

Karl Aspelund

Source: Designing. An Introduction, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Designers Speak

Dress, Self-Fashioning and Display at the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum

Christine Guth

Source: Dress History. New Directions in Theory and Practice, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Isabella Stewart Gardner negotiated a prominent public position for herself in Boston through the establishment of a museum that promoted a different attitude towards art than those founded with the aim of educating the public. She assembled her collection as an individual, producing a competing, but equally ideologically motivated account of what she regarded as art. Her collection embraced the cultures of Europe and Asia, but also gave recognition to products of female craft such as lace. While

All Out in the Wash: Convict Stain Removal in the Narryna Heritage Museum’s Dress Collection

Jennifer Clynk and Sharon Peoples

Source: Dress History. New Directions in Theory and Practice, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

This study extends historian Stefan Petrow’s 2009 study of the convict stain and Narryna by suggesting ways in which its effects can be overcome or reinterpreted, especially in relation to dress. The metaphor of the convict stain relates to a social stigma dating from the 1840s, when anti-transportationists in VDL began a fierce political and moral campaign against convict transportation to the colony. The stain metaphor was a nineteenth-century term applied by historians from the 1850s through t

Fetish

Frenchy Lunning

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

This article discusses the origins and history of fetish fashions (and gives an explanation of forms and functions) from the late nineteenth century to the early twenty-first century. Beginning with late nineteenth-century Paris, when these forms came into play, it tracks the development through modernist culture and into the postmodern culture of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, noting the similar cultural conditions of gender instabilities and roles. It explains how fetish f

The Empress’s Old Clothes: Biographies of African Dress at the Victoria And Albert Museum

Nicola Stylianou

Source: Dress History. New Directions in Theory and Practice, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

On 20 April 1869 the V&A accessioned a number of objects from Ethiopia including clothes and jewellery that were listed in the museum register as having been given to the museum by the ‘Secretary of State for India’ and ‘belonging formerly to the Queen of Abyssinia’ (V&A 1869). At this time the V&A had not yet been divided into departments with objects being accepted for inclusion in the museum on the grounds of design excellence or as demonstrations of particular techniques. Included in this gif

The Directoire Period and the Empire Period 1790–1820

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The Directoire period (c. 1790–1800) includes the French Revolution and the establishment of the Directory (in French, Directoire), a government by a five-man executive body. The Empire period followed, coinciding generally with the period during which Napoleon Bonaparte was head of state in France. Indeed, the name of the period derives from the name of his era, the Napoleonic empire.

The Romantic Period 1820–1850

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

In its emphasis on sentiment and feeling, Romanticism represented a reaction against the formal classical styles of the 17th and 18th centuries. Romantics rejected the classical insistence on rules governing creative work. Content was more important than form; rules could be broken. Romantic writers assumed that “empirical science and philosophy were inadequate as a means of answering all the most important questions concerning human life” (Harris, 1969, 19). Romantic artists appealed to the emot

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