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Chanel and Her Rivals

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Sandwiched between two world wars, between Poiret’s harem and Dior’s New Look, two women dominated the field of haute couture—Schiaparelli and Chanel.

Fashion under the Occupation

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The house of Jacques Heim is no longer a Jewish house.

The Twenties, Thirties, and World War II 1920–1947

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

With the end of World War I, Europe and the United States hoped for a return to normalcy. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, a strong proponent of the League of Nations, campaigned arduously for ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and membership for the United States in the League. These efforts cost him his health—he suffered a breakdown in 1919—and he was an invalid for the remainder of his 17 months in office. In the end, the Senate defeated the treaty, and the United States never joined the

The Twenties, Thirties, and World War II, 1920–1947

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume. Student Study Guide, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

Surviving the Depression: 1930s

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution, 2014, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Pattern producers repudiate rumors that they enjoyed a boom during the Depression. Like most other businesses, theirs suffers when people are hard up; it recovers when people start spending again. Patterns hit bottom in 1932. Improvement began in the Fall of 1933, but not soon enough to make an increase for the year. Estimates place 1934 ahead of 1933 by about 10%.

Exhibiting The Body, Dress, and Time in Museums: A Historical Perspective

Anne-Sofie Hjemdahl

Source: Fashion and Museums. Theory and Practice, 2014, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The headless mannequins are so filled with character that one can easily imagine the missing faces with their hairstyles and hats.

1868–1944: The Japoniste Revolution, the Deorientalizing of the Orient and the Birth of Couture

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century, 2013, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Civilization! Read: ‘the era that has lost almost all its creative power…in jewellery as in furniture’; and in one or the other we are compelled to exhume or import. Import what? Indian bracelets of glass filament and Chinese earrings of cut paper? No. But more often the naïve taste that underlies their making.

Highlights in the History of Accessories from Ancient Times to the Present

Aneta Genova

Source: Accessory Design, 2012, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Chapter One traces the history of accessories as they developed in the Western world from ancient Egypt through the twentieth century. After reading this chapter, you will be able to identify and describe features of accessory design throughout history that can inspire your own designs.

Buying into Fashion: The Social Background

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Shopping for Fashion in the Pre-War Years

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Being Chic and Being British

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The Healthy Body and the Politics of Fitness

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Evacuation

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Fashions for a Phoney War

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Calls for Rationed Fashion

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Conclusion

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Paul Poiret: Classic and New in the Struggle for Designer Mastery

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

In a meditation on the accumulation of symbolic capital in the fields of cultural production, Bourdieu, who views fashion as one among many such fields, explains that the production of time is central to the work of distinguishing the artists: ‘To “make one’s name” (faire date) means making one’s mark, achieving recognition (in both senses) of one’s difference from other producers; at the same time, it means creating a new position beyond the positions presently occupied, ahead of them, in the av

Elsa Schiaparelli: Glamour, Privacy and Timelessness

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The opening lines of Schiaparelli’s 1954 autobiography, Shocking Life, are curious. Referring to herself in the third person, as she does intermittently throughout the text, Schiaparelli writes, ‘I merely know Schiap by hearsay. I have only seen her in a mirror.’ElsaSchiaparelli, Shocking Life (1954; reprint, V&A Publications, 2007), p. vii. Here, with surprising bluntness, she sets herself up as someone who is ‘split’, having a rich inner life characterized by multiple visions of self.For a tho

Vionnet, Madeleine*

Rebecca Arnold

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Around 1900 Vionnet moved to Callot Soeurs’s celebrated couture house in Paris. There she began to understand the significance of garment design that sprang from draping fabric directly onto a live model, rather than sketching a design on paper and then translating it into fabric. This approach necessarily focused attention on the body and its relationship to the way fabric was draped and sculpted around its contours. Vionnet exploited this technique to the full. For Vionnet, draping—in her case

Azerbaijan—Urban Dress, the 1920s to the Twenty-First Century

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Azeri (Azerbaijani ethnicity) aristocracy and the nascent bourgeoisie and intelligentsia gradually introduced elements of Western styles into their dress beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, when the region was still part of the Russian tsarist empire. Europeanized dress was one of the elements within a wider discourse that challenged the old way of life and its long-held traditions and proposed modernization in all the fields of society. A new role for women was on the agenda of secular

Windsor, Duke and Duchess of

Andrew Bolton

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Duke of Windsor was born Prince Edward of York on 23 June 1894. With the death of his grandfather, King Edward VII in 1910, his father was crowned King George V. Upon his father’s accession, Prince Edward of York became Duke Edward of Cornwall, and on his sixteenth birthday, Prince Edward of Wales.

Dress Reforms of the Early Twentieth Century in Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan

Derek Bryce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

During the 1920s and 1930s, three states—Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan—embarked on a series of wide-ranging programmatic reforms designed to transform their respective societies fundamentally. Often called “modernization from above” because of their association with authoritarian elites, these reforms attempted to impose changes in state, economic, and sociocultural spheres that favored broadly Western models and to replace or restrict the practice of corresponding traditional, indigenous, or Isl

Fortuny, Mariano

Gillion Carrara

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Fortuny’s garments and textiles fuse history, anthropology, and art. By blending various dyes he achieved luminous, unique colors. Resurrecting the ancient craft of pleating fabric, artistically symbolizing a reflection of the sun’s rays, Fortuny developed his own interpretation of this craft and registered his heated pleating device in 1909. Between 1901 and 1933 he registered twenty-two patents, all of which related to garments and printing methods. Prolific in artistic pursuits, he printed etc

Gucci

Gillion Carrara

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Flügel, J. C.

Michael Carter

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Flügel makes little use of Freud’s ideas of clothing as either fetish objects or as sexual symbols in dreams. Central to his analysis of clothing is the sociopolitical interpretation he gives to Freud’s model of the human psyche. Freud argues for a three-part division of the mind into id, superego, and ego. The id is the dimension of primitive instinct and the ultimate propelling force of the organism. The superego is an equally primitive inhibitory mechanism that operates as a crude controller o

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