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Design Research and Inspiration

John Hopkins

Source: Menswear, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

You can say that designing is quite easy; the difficulty lies in finding a new way to explore beauty.

Design Development for Menswear

John Hopkins

Source: Menswear, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

A man should look as if he’s bought his clothes with intelligence, put them on with care and forgotten all about them.

Menswear Presentations

John Hopkins

Source: Menswear, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

There are three responses toa piece of design—yes, no,and wow! Wow is the one toaim for.

Fashion’s World Cities

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Paris has changed, the system has changed, everything has been transformed. For the system to function, the participants have to be international, production has to be international. It’s clear that we no longer can or should be 100% French anymore.

Proportion and the Fashion Figure

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Sometimes the body takes over. Sometimes the garment takes over. Sometimes it is more equal. When the body takes over, as in a slinky gown, the garment does not come to life until it is on the body. When the garment takes over, as in a voluminous coat, the body is merely a hanger for the clothing. But many times, it is a combination of both.

The Fashion Face

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The 1920s was the age of the flapper. Women were much more emancipated than they were at the turn of the century. Makeup had a painted-doll look to it with Clara Bow and Gloria Swanson setting the style. There was an equal balance between the eyes and the lips, which were often cupid-bow-shaped and red. The eyes were shadowed and the brows rather thin. The cheeks were rouged, and at times a beauty mark was placed near the chin. The hair was sleek and bobbed, giving the head a very small look.

Shaping the Body

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

1 Notice the planes of the female body—out over the breasts, in underneath them, going in at the waist, and rounding out over the hips. You can observe how shadows form under the areas that curve in and disappear on the areas that extend out.

Menswear

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Women's clothes have been influenced by menswear as far back as the 1930s, when Marlene Dietrich was photographed wearing an adaptation of a man's suit. Additionally, Yves Saint Laurent has been designing tuxedo suits for women for the last 30 years.

Skirts

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

We have come a long way since skirt hems swept the ground and women were not allowed to show an ankle. Until the 1960s, skirt lengths were dictated by a handful of major designers, and women followed their lead. Long, to the knees, or as short as the law would allow, until recently the length of a woman's skirt has always been a major fashion issue.

Pants

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The origin of women wearing pants is not known, but as far back as the first century c.e., women from the Middle East and Asia were wearing some form of pants. In a more modern time, Amelia Bloomer, attempting to banish the corset in the mid-1850s, helped to conceive an outfit consisting of a short skirt that was worn over full trousers that were gathered at the ankles. These trousers were called “bloomers” after her. The bloomer costume had a rather short life, but helped to introduce the concep

Seeing the blur—perception, cool, and mechanized speed (1910–present)

Vanessa Brown

Source: Cool Shades. The History and Meaning of Sunglasses, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

speedindustrialised consciousness; panoramic perception; Virilio, PaulAlthough the now-ubiquitous image of bikini, shades, and sun-lounger might suggest that the ideal wearer of sunglasses enjoys the luxury of being blissfully inert, the dynamic power, excess, and seductive glamor of men and women speeding along in shades is undeniable—from the tough sheen of Marlon Brando in The Wild Ones to twenty-first century pop acts like Britney SpearsBritney Spears in “Toxic,” where impenetrable diamond-st

Seeing in the light—“sun”glasses, modern glamor, cool, and celebrity (1920s–present)

Vanessa Brown

Source: Cool Shades. The History and Meaning of Sunglasses, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Today, a more general sense that sunglasses protect our eyes from sunlight dominates. After all, the name finally settled on for all kinds of motor goggles, protective spectacles, autoglasses, and so on was (and is) sunglasses, conjuring up countless images of those bikini-clad women and casual, white linen-clad men basking in the glow of their own attractiveness, their sunglasses bouncing back that gold-colored light of happiness and success. Smiling or not, these men and women are embodiments o

Seeing in the dark—sunglasses and “outsider” cool (1940s–present)

Vanessa Brown

Source: Cool Shades. The History and Meaning of Sunglasses, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Many of the most evocative images show sunglasses worn in the dark, indoors, possibly because in these images we are forced to acknowledge their more oblique functions. Layers of darkness and blackness are compounded by dark frames with dark lenses in many of these images; think of Miles Davis in a murky club, in a dark suit, what light there is just highlighting the sheen of his skin against the intense glossy blackness of his shades.

Heading for the shade—the spread of outsider cool (1950s–present)

Vanessa Brown

Source: Cool Shades. The History and Meaning of Sunglasses, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

outsiderSunglasses were tactically used by people who were “outside” the goals and means of dominant society, as part of an articulation of a dissonant style which held an attraction just as great as that of those sunny images of “straight” success and leisure. This chapter will show how the more complex connotations of “outsider cool” became desirable and were appropriated by the “mainstream” in the 1950s and 1960s and beyond. Sunglasses could act as a sign of a “bettered self”—but they also sta

Seeing in the “eclipse”—sunglasses, cool, and the absence of meaning (late 1950s–present)

Vanessa Brown

Source: Cool Shades. The History and Meaning of Sunglasses, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Warhol, Andyglamorempty (or hollow) glamorThe light is artificial and mirrors are provided, but not windows, because the characters must be protected from bleak, bruising reality.

Today’s Buying Environment

Richard Clodfelter

Source: Retail Buying. From Basics to Fashion, 5th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Retailing consists of all the business activities involved in the selling of goods and services to the ultimate consumers. Retailing, however, does not always require a store. Catalog sales, vending machines, e-commerce, and door-to-door sales all fit within the scope of retailing. No matter where retailing occurs, however, someone must perform the buying function. Buying is the business activity that involves selecting and purchasing products to satisfy the wants and needs of consumers. Buying i

The Buying Function in Retailing

Richard Clodfelter

Source: Retail Buying. From Basics to Fashion, 5th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Often, buying appeals to college students because they see the glamour associated with frequent travel to exciting places, such as New York City, Los Angeles, Paris, or Milan, and buying trips where they get to spend thousands of dollars on the newest styles and fashions. Travel may be exciting, but often all that a buyer may see of a city is the view from a taxi on the way to a hotel or a merchandise mart. Nor does the hectic pace of a market week allow much time for sightseeing. Deciding what m

Buying for Different Types of Stores

Richard Clodfelter

Source: Retail Buying. From Basics to Fashion, 5th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Almost all the duties that are described in the last chapter are performed by a buyer at any type of retail store—no matter what products are sold. As you start to plan your career in retail buying, one of your first decisions should be to determine the types of merchandise that would interest you the most. Are you more interested in soft lines or hard lines? Soft lines are typically the apparel and accessory product categories and fashions for the home such as linens, curtains, and bathroom item

Obtaining Assistance for Making Buying Decisions

Richard Clodfelter

Source: Retail Buying. From Basics to Fashion, 5th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Marketing research is a systematic process of gathering, recording, and analyzing information about problems related to marketing. Good marketing research must be conducted in a comprehensive, step-by-step process; it cannot be haphazard. Marketing research involves using information, or data, from many different sources. As a buyer you must be able to do more than locate information, you must be able to analyze and use the information that you collect.

Understanding Your Customers

Richard Clodfelter

Source: Retail Buying. From Basics to Fashion, 5th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Consumers in the United States are changing, and they will continue to change. Current population numbers are known; future population trends can be forecasted. The number of people who will be over 65 and the number of teenagers ten years from now can be accurately predicted. Those customers are already born, and because forecasters have a good idea of mortality rates, these predictions are more than guesses. Retailers can safely use population and other demographic forecasts as they make future

Understanding Product Trends: What Customers Buy

Richard Clodfelter

Source: Retail Buying. From Basics to Fashion, 5th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

• Recognize that the merchandise mix offered must be geared to satisfying customer wants and needs.

Forecasting

Richard Clodfelter

Source: Retail Buying. From Basics to Fashion, 5th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Buyers typically develop forecasts to answer questions such as these:

Preparing Buying Plans

Richard Clodfelter

Source: Retail Buying. From Basics to Fashion, 5th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Integrally related to planning is the necessity to control merchandising decisions. You must check your plans periodically to ensure they are being followed and are achieving the desired results. Your success as a buyer will be measured by how well you plan and control the amount of money spent for merchandise to yield the desired sales and profit.

Developing Assortment Plans

Richard Clodfelter

Source: Retail Buying. From Basics to Fashion, 5th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Buyers want to have enough products to meet customer demand without having to take markdowns because of having excess inventory. Maintaining such a balanced inventory requires skill and experience and takes considerable planning. As a buyer, you must prepare a detailed assortment plan for each item that you will be purchasing. You must also work within the framework established by your merchandise plan because quantity purchases for all items of merchandise must not exceed your dollar plan. Compr

Controlling Inventories

Richard Clodfelter

Source: Retail Buying. From Basics to Fashion, 5th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

After deciding on the merchandise assortment that is to be carried, inventory control systems must be established. These controls involve the maintenance of stock levels in relation to changing consumer demand. The type of inventory control system used by a retailer will vary by type and size of the business and the kind and amount of information required. Inventory control for a department, such as hardware with thousands of different items, will probably be quite different from that for a produ

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