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Origins and Early Development of Tweed to 1850

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Gulvin, CliffordGulvin argues that improvements made in the Scottish woolen industry between 1770 and the late 1820s helped to lay the foundations for the later successful development of tweed production. Prior to the 1770s, the production of woolens in Scotland was considerably less advanced than that of its neighbor England in terms of its economic success and the quality of its cloths. By the late eighteenth century, England had long been renowned for producing fine broadclothsbroadcloths, whi

The Romantic Period 1820–1850

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

In its emphasis on sentiment and feeling, Romanticism represented a reaction against the formal classical styles of the 17th and 18th centuries. Romantics rejected the classical insistence on rules governing creative work. Content was more important than form; rules could be broken. Romantic writers assumed that “empirical science and philosophy were inadequate as a means of answering all the most important questions concerning human life” (Harris, 1969, 19). Romantic artists appealed to the emot

The Crinoline Period 1850–1870

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The increasing width of women’s skirts had been leading to the use of multiple layers of stiffened petticoats. In September 1856 the editor of Peterson’s Magazine hailed the revival of the 18th-century hoopskirts as a means of holding out these voluminous skirts:

The Romantic Period, 1820–1850

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume. Student Study Guide, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

The Crinoline Period, 1850–1869

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume. Student Study Guide, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

Development of Dressmaking Patterns: 1800–1860

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution, 2014, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Through the eighteenth century, methods for communicating the latest fashions were limited to word of mouth, fashion dolls known as Pandoras, fashion plates such as Galerie des Modes, and publications for professional tailors.

1815–1871: Turkophilia, Afromania and the Indes

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century, 2013, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Yet neither high Egyptian nights nor the black and opulent coffee with cardamom seed nor the frequent literary discussions with the Doctors of the Law nor the venerable muslin turban nor the meals eaten with his fingers made him forget his British reticence, the delicate central solitude of the masters of the earth.

Tweed

Fiona Anderson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Tweed cloth originated in Scotland in the early nineteenth century. At that time, it was only made from woolen yarns in the twill weave. From the 1820s to the present, tweed has been characterized by a huge range of color and weave effects. The main account given for the origins of the name tweed is that it is based on a misreading of the Scottish word tweel or twill (which was the weave characteristic of Scottish woolens at that time) for tweed. By the 1840s, tweed was established as a term used

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ethnic Dress

Svetlana Bajić

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Ethnic dress in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which preserved rather archaic and diversified items of clothing, mostly belonged to the Dinaric type (the dress of western Bosnia and Herzegovina); the central Bosnian type (the dress of the areas around the Bosna River, east of the Drina River, westward through the Lasva River valley up to the town of Travnik, and southward to Mount Ivan); and the Pannonian type (the dress typical of the Posavina area along the right bank of the Sava River and the lower p

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Urban Dress

Svetlana Bajić

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

In the 1878–1995 period, Bosnia and Herzegovina had to start its statehood, political system, and economy from scratch on several occasions—more often than any other territory in the immediate or surrounding region. Political change and conflicts include the Austro-Hungarian period: 1878–1914; World War I: 1914–1918; Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes and Kingdom of Yugoslavia: 1918–1945; World War II: 1941–1945; Socialist Yugoslavia: 1945–1992; war period: 1992–1995; and the Dayton Accords p

Belgium

Karlijn Bronselaer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Belgium played a vital role in the industrialization of the European textile industry. Belgian society changed very quickly due to industrialization during the first half of the nineteenth century. From about the 1820s on the fashionable silhouette in West Europe was the hourglass. Although the average Belgian had neither time nor money for fashion, improved production methods and sewing machines made corsets more affordable. Later, the Art Nouveau or Jugendstil movement (ca. 1890–1920), with its

Antarctic Explorer Wear

Natalie Cadenhead

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing worn in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica demonstrates important design changes developed to assist wearers with extreme weather conditions. Antarctic clothing history is split into two main eras: the heroic era from 1840 to 1917 and the scientific era from 1940 to the twenty-first century. Exploration that occurred between these eras was mainly sea-based for commercial reasons (sealing and whaling) and did not affect clothing design in any major way. At the beginning of the heroic era o

Body and Beauty

Patrizia Calefato

Translated by Sveva Scaramuzzi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The concept of human “race” was extended for the first time from its meaning of “lineage” or “descent” by Georges Cuvier (1769–1823) who gave it a classificatory, hierarchical meaning. During the nineteenth century, this conception led to racial biology and eugenics. Notwithstanding the researchers’ intentions, the idea of “race” constituted the basis for nineteenth- and twentieth-century racist ideologies. The idea of feminine beauty also evolved in relation to the genesis of racism. Fashion bec

Bloomer Costume

Colleen R. Callahan

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Our skirts have been robbed of about a foot of their former length, and a pair of loose trousers of the same material as the dress, substituted. These latter extend from the waist to the ankle, and may be gathered into a band & We make our dress the same as usual, except that we wear no bodice, or a very slight one, the waist is loose and easy, and without whalebones & Our skirt is full, and falls a little below the knee.

Godey’s Lady’s Book

Colleen R. Callahan

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Helmet

Beverly Chico

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Prehistoric peoples probably wore woven basketry or hide head protectors; ancient Ethiopians used horse skulls, manes, and tails. Archaeological evidence reveals that rawhide caps and copper helmets, protecting ears and neck nape—with chin straps and padded wool or leather lining—were worn by Sumerian, Babylonian, and Assyrian warriors during the third to first millennia B.C.E. Early Greek helmets were usually bronze hemispherical crowns. The Corinthian version incorporated a movable face mask; t

Convict Dress in Australia

Julia Clark, Linda Clark, Kim Simpson, Ian Terry and Elspeth Wishart

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Following the American War of Independence, Britain could no longer send convicts there, so one hundred and sixty thousand convicts were transported to the Australian colonies between 1788 and 1868. Their management, including clothing, was an enormous undertaking. Colonial penal authorities aimed to regulate convicts, make them easily identifiable, and classify them within the penal system. However, it was difficult to establish a coherent clothing system. Until the 1820s, convict clothing was o

Worth, Charles Frederick

Elizabeth Ann Coleman

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Charles Frederick Worth was uncommonly astute in recognizing that his talents were better directed toward artistic creativity rather than managing a business. Following a period of working in London dry-goods shops, Worth set out for Paris. In 1846 he found a position at the prominent dry-goods and dressmaking firm of Gagelin et Opigez. This position gave Worth the experience that later enabled him to build his own business. At Gagelin he was exposed to the best resources for fabrics and trims, a

Settler Dress in Australia

Damayanthie Eluwawalage

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing was a problematic aspect of the social and cultural life of colonial Australia from the time of first settlement in 1788. Apart from military officers and civil officials, much everyday clothing was working-class wear. Yet fashionable dress was soon to become a key aspect of cultural practice, emphasizing the social status and power of the elite and aspirational elite, as well as being a symbolic indicator of class. Status signals were important in this fledgling society made up of dispa

Jews in the Melbourne Garment Trade

Anna Epstein

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

For a large part of the twentieth century the garment trade was an important industry in the southern Australian state of Victoria. Since clothing was a big part of the country’s manufacturing, the Jews of the garment trade made a large contribution to Australia’s economy. This multifaceted industry had its own economic and social history, gorgeous products, and camaraderie and color at its heart, Flinders Lane. It gave rise to the individualism, flair, entrepreneurial spirit, and sheer fun that

American Immigrants of West European Origin

Judy Zaccagnini Flynn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The dress of North American immigrants from Western Europe is a reflection of the evolution of their sociocultural experience as they went from their homelands to the New World. Immigration has existed from the early times of settlement in North America to the present. Western Europe (defined in 1890 as Italy, Spain, France, Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Austria-Hungry, Switzerland, France, and Luxembourg) provided the largest number of immigrants to the United Sta

Dress and Fashion Museums

Akiko Fukai

Translated by Brian Moeran

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Until the comparatively recent establishment of specialist fashion museums, dress collections—focused primarily on ethnic, religious, or court dress—had existed in general art museums throughout the world, but they had usually been treated as works of art, or as examples of craft and design. In Japan, where these distinctions were not drawn, traditional dress was viewed as art. However, during the nineteenth century in Europe, when art came to be classified into “high” and “low” forms, dress was

Photographic and Other Visual Sources

Christraud M. Geary

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Dress in Africa has attracted the attention of foreign observers since the earliest encounters with peoples on the continent. Whether they deemed it exotic, curious, ugly, beautiful, or comical, writers of all backgrounds often mentioned and depicted dress in their publications. From the seventeenth century onward, descriptions of Africa were published with engravings, woodcuts, and, later, lithographs, among other types of illustrations, that helped readers to envision faraway worlds and peoples

The Plains

Adriana Greci Green

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Plains is a vast region comprising the central portion of the entire North American continent. Very little is known about the dress of the prehistoric inhabitants of the Plains, although there is evidence of Paleo-Indian human occupation dating back at least 13,000 years. These early inhabitants originally hunted mammoths and later pursued the buffalo herds that roamed the great expanses of grassland, as well as elk, deer, antelope, and mountain sheep. A few ornaments, primarily bone, stone,

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