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Modernity—an onslaught on the eyes

Vanessa Brown

Source: Cool Shades. The History and Meaning of Sunglasses 2015

Book chapter

emotiondandyBefore the twentieth century, sunglasses as we think of them today were not in any kind of widespread use. Tinted glass (green or blue) had been recommended since the eighteenth century—but for correctivespectaclesspectacles (Ayscough in Drewry 1994) intended to be worn indoors. Mid-eighteenth century Venice saw green tinted glasses used against glare from the water (the “Goldoni” type, worn by and named after the leader of the commedia dell’ arte). At the turn of the nineteenth centu

1690–1815: Chinoiserie, Indiennerie, Turquerie and Egyptomania

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

See, mademoiselle, how that goes well with your Chinese-style hairstyle, your mantle of peacock feathers, your petticoat of celadon and gold, your cinnamon bottoms and your shoes of jade…

Benin

Joseph C.E. Adande

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Republic of Benin is bounded in the south by the Atlantic Ocean, in the north by Niger and Burkina Faso, in the east by Nigeria, and in the west by Togo. Thus, it naturally shares both history and culture with the peoples of these neighboring countries. In Benin, clothing, regardless of definition, is as complex and varied as its numerous linguistic groups. In the Benin Republic, Vodun adepts and masquerade performers dress primarily to please their gods and offer them the appropriate manifes

Masquerade and Masked Balls

Ann Ilan Alter

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Okpella

Jean M. Borgatti

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Okpella dress as known from the twentieth century includes both everyday wear and dress associated with ritual and festive events, notably clothing associated with men’s and women’s title taking. For men, this includes garments donned during age-group ceremonies, the preliminary event for all subsequent title taking, as well as the apron and feathered crown worn during the Oghalo ceremony, the completion of which admits them into the body of titled elders who, in the past, formed the ruling counc

Igbo in Nigeria and Diaspora

Herbert M. Cole

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

One of the largest populations of West African peoples at over twenty million, the Igbo have a history of dress and personal decoration lasting over one thousand years. The archaeological sites of Igbo Ukwu, dating from the ninth and tenth centuries c.e., begin this record in the heart of Igbo country, twenty-five miles (forty kilometers) east of the Niger River and about one hundred miles (one hundred sixty-one kilometers) north of the Atlantic Ocean. Although the documentation is largely blank

Masquerade, Theater, Dance Costumes

Herbert M. Cole

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

African masquerades, perhaps the continent’s premier art form, play grandly with illusion, ambivalence, and paradox. Masks and masquerades are both more, and less, than what they appear to be. Their illusionist play can be comic and lighthearted, or deeply serious, but always it is creative and imaginative, art and artifice. Never is it ordinary, and usually it is deeply meaningful and sometimes powerfully instrumental. Masquerades both create and help organize values and knowledge, and they are

Masquerade Dress

Cynthia Cooper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Masquerade rituals and entertainments popular in North America were initially derived from European tradition and fashionable practices. Mummering and Mardi Gras, both forms of masked celebration that had roots in the Middle Ages in Europe, took on their own unique character in the specific regions of Canada and the United States where they persisted. When the European vogue for public masquerade declined at the beginning of the nineteenth century in favor of private fancy dress balls and parties

Fancy Dress: African Masquerade in Coastal Ghana

Courtnay Micots

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fancy Dress is a lively secular masquerade performed on the coast of Ghana, West Africa. The majority of the young men and women who participate identify themselves as Fante, an Akan subgroup dominating the Central Region. Members from Effutu, Ahanta, Ga, and other coastal communities are also involved. In the early twenty-first century, Fancy Dress has become an integral part of local celebrations such as Easter, Christmas, New Year’s Day, harvest festivals, and members’ funerals. Fancy Dress st

Masquefest 2012

Courtnay Micots

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Children’s Masquerade Costumes

Simon Ottenberg

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Children’s masquerades in Africa south of the Sahara most often occur in the western and central areas—the major regions of adult masquerading—although some are found in southern Africa. Most performances are by boys; while girls’ masquerades are rarer, they have not been as well reported in the past due to gender bias. In children’s masquerades, as in adult ones, the performers’ dress and mask are generally considered as a whole and have one name. Child masqueraders may play musical instruments

Carnival

Lidia Sciama

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As anthropologists have found, people’s desire to abandon their workaday persona and temporarily adopt a different identity seems near universal. Carnival offers a ritual framework for people to act out their desires for alternative selves. Hierarchies are temporarily upturned; by acting as a safety valve, such reversals do not permanently change the social structure but reassert its validity at the end of the Carnival season. The Venice Carnival (for which the first written reference dates back

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