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Conclusion: “Wrapping it Up”

Arti Sandhu

Source: Indian Fashion. Tradition, Innovation, Style 2015

Book chapter

When I say Rani Pink to you, you get it. I don’t have to explain the shade to you. Your dadi or your nani would have passed it on to you.dadi–paternal grandmother, nani–maternal grandmother. You know it consciously and unconsciously. (Garg 2013)Cited from “Raw Mango: A Conversation with Sanjay Garg.” Park Magazine, Vol. 8, 2013, “Color,” p. 31. Available from http://www.theparkhotels.com/living-magazine.html (accessed July 17, 2013).

Dress and Textiles in Transition: The Sungudi Sari Revival of Tamilnadu, India

Kala Shreen

Source: Dress History. New Directions in Theory and Practice 2015

Book chapter

What is sungudi? A craftsperson ties a thread around a tiny portion of fabric, knots it tightly and repeats. Once the fabric is dyed and the knots untied, the previously knotted areas will transform into tiny dots (Plate 24. Traditionally sungudi was used for cotton saris. Thousands of such dots decorate a sungudi sari; it contains 20,000 knots on average. Depending on the number of knots tied, a sungudi sari may take seven to fifteen days to make. According to the documents produced by the Gover

West Africa

Lisa Aronson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

West African markets are well known for their tightly packed displays of textiles in rich arrays of colors and patterns, and tailors on their sewing machines can be heard everywhere sewing visually striking garments that seldom go unnoticed when worn in public. So vital and richly varied are textiles in West Africa that even prominent contemporary artists such as El Anatsui from Ghana and Nigeria and Yinka Shonibare from Nigeria are inspired by them as powerful mediums for discourse on historical

Sari

Mukulika Banerjee and Daniel Miller

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

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Sarong

Heidi Boehlke

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The sarong was the dress of the seafaring peoples of the Malay Peninsula near Sumatra and Java; according to Gittinger, it was subsequently introduced on the island of Madura and along the north coast of Java. In the late nineteenth century, an observer recorded its absence in the Java interior. Early sea traders in these waters were Moslems from India, and Islam spread from the coastal areas, so it is thought that these early sarongs may have been woven plaids, which were associated with Moslem

The Shawl and the Head Cover

Rosemary Crill

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A draped, uncut length of cloth has been the basis of Indian male and female dress since the earliest times. This draped cloth has taken many forms, with the turban, sari, and dhoti having been the major components of dress across India for centuries. The focus on wrapped, untailored lengths of cloth altered with the arrival of the Kushans in the second century b.c.e. and in the wake of closer contacts with Central Asia through migrations and trade. Later, under the influence of Muslim culture fr

The Kingdom of Benin

Kathy Curnow

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Kingdom of Benin, a historically important traditional state, is located in southern Nigeria just north of the Niger River Delta. For centuries, its Edo people have looked to Benin City as their cultural center. The seat of a hereditary kingship, it is also a university town and state capital. The oba, its semidivine monarch, still exerts considerable influence even though the modern nation has usurped most of his political privileges. About two hundred chiefs assist him and form the aristocr

Introduction to South Asia

Jasleen Dhamija

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

South Asia possesses a wide range of terrain. The northern area has high mountain ranges in Nepal along with the high-altitude plateaus of Ladakh and Bhutan, while eastern India and Bangladesh have tropical areas with high rainfall. There is the Thar Desert, which extends from Pakistan, Rajasthan, and Haryana to Delhi. The fertile Punjab, watered by five rivers, has since ancient times attracted migrations from Central Asia. The ancient riverine culture of the Indus, Saraswati, and Ganges nurture

Cache-Sexe

Sandra Lee Evenson

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

To solve the mystery of why they were [worn], I think we must follow our eyes. Not only do the skirts hide nothing of importance, but also if anything, they attract the eye precisely to the specifically female sexual areas by framing them, presenting them, or playing peekaboo with them &. Our best guess, then is that string skirts indicated something about the childbearing ability or readiness of a woman, & that she was in some sense “available” as a bride. (p. 59)

Early History of Dress and Fashion in Italy and the Iberian Peninsula

Carmen Alfaro Giner and Maria Giuseppina Muzzarelli

Translated by Ana Alacovska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Rock engravings in Valcamonica, Italy, indicate the use of looms and thus weaving in the second millennium b.c.e. Tunics were worn by both men and women during pre-Roman times in the Iberian Peninsula.Italian regions colonized by Greece in the eighth century b.c.e. were influenced by Hellenic fashion. The Roman royal period lasted from 753 to 509 b.c.e., followed by the republic and the empire. Clothing during the first two periods was largely austere, although wealth and refinement characterized

Cambodia: Historical Dress

Gillian Green

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The origin of the indigenous Khmer people of Cambodia has not yet been unambiguously determined. Archaeological evidence of human habitation as long ago as 4200 b.c.e. has been found in the northwest of the region. Human bones found at Samrong Sen, dated to 1500 b.c.e., have characteristics suggesting an ancestral relationship to modern Khmer. Research published in the 1990s suggests that the Austro-Asiatic peoples, the ethnolinguistic group to which the Khmer belong, originate from the Yangzi Ri

Cambodia

Gillian Green

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the four centuries between the fall of Angkor to the Siamese in the mid-fifteenth century c.e. and the arrival of French officials in the mid-nineteenth century, there is very little direct information about Khmer dress. It can be presumed, however, that owing to Siamese political dominance, the dress of the upper echelons of society would have conformed to that of the Siamese court during the Ayutthaya period (1351–1767 c.e.) and its successor, the Ratanakosin period (from 1782 on). Siamese s

Colonial Influence on the Sarong and Kain in Java

Marianne Hulsbosch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The sarong, a tubular stitched cloth, and the kain, a rectangular cloth, are iconic items in the Indonesian dress lexicon. Both the single rectangular cloth and the tubular cloth are lengths of material that are woven in Indonesia and decorated with ethnic-specific motifs. Men and women drape and pleat a sarong or kain around the body; men drape the kain counterclockwise, and women drape it clockwise. The centrality of all aspects of textiles and the abundance of designs have made cloth a highly

The Sari

Aarti Kawlra

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The word sari refers to the unstitched length of cloth that serves as the principal component of a clothing ensemble that most often includes a bodice and a petticoat. Known widely as the national dress of the Indian woman, the sari is a draped item of clothing whose contemporary sartorial expression has evolved over centuries of exchange between indigenous cultures and foreign influence. Historical records of the textile trade from India include mention of saris woven in special designs and tech

East Africa

Sandra Klopper and Rehema Nchimbi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The production of textiles in East Africa has a long and varied history. In countries like Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi, which now form part of the East African Community, cotton garments were comparatively uncommon prior to the introduction of imported cloth in the course of the nineteenth century. Although cotton weaving techniques were probably first introduced to this region by Persian invaders who settled on the East African coast in 975 c.e. to form the Zeji Empire, centered

The Sarong Kebaya of Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia

Chor Lin Lee

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The epical images on bas-reliefs of Javanese classical monuments such as Prambanan and Borobudur suggest that the courts of central Java preserved many facets of ancient society. Dress was one of them. Outside the ritual-bound context of these courts, dress changed dramatically. During the Hindu-Buddhist era (eighth to fourteenth centuries), women dressed predominantly in a style largely influenced by the Indian sojourners: Their shoulders were bare, their chests were wrapped in a continuous piec

Madagascar

John Mack

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Madagascar is by far the largest of the islands lying off the coast of Africa, yet its traditions of dress and personal decoration are distinctively different from what is found even on adjacent parts of the continent. They also show considerable differentiation within the island itself. Clothing is adapted both to extremes of heat and, in the center of the island, to cold, especially at night. Banana tree fiber, bark, hemp, and indigenous silkworms have all been exploited in making textiles, and

Early History of Dress and Fashion in Continental West Europe

Mechthild Müller

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The discovery of the Iceman “Oetzi,” who lived between 3500 and 3000 b.c.e., provides valuable information on early dress. His many garments included a patchwork-style goat-fur mantle. Much later, Roman dress included tunics and togas for Roman citizens or friendly allied nations. In 816/817 Charlemagne’s son, Louis the Pious, made monks and members of the clergy accept dress codes. Lay men and women were required to dress differently, and women had to cover their heads in public. Fashion during

Nigeria Overview

John Picton

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A broad if highly oversimplistic view of dress and dress history in Nigeria would probably begin with a contrast between textiles wrapped around the body—a complex of traditions of the forests and southern savannas—and textiles cut and sewn to make garments—practices loosely associated with, but, historically, not wholly dependent on, the advent of Islam in the Sahel and savanna regions. Thereafter, however, the account becomes endlessly complicated because of (a) the interpenetration of the two

Dress and Its Symbolic Significance in South Asia and Southeast Asia

Victoria Z. Rivers

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The large geographic region of South and Southeast Asia consists of many diverse nations and ethnic groups, with correspondingly complex systems of dress influenced by cultural and spiritual contexts, geographic and climatic conditions, access to materials, interactions with peoples and trade, and economic, political, and social dynamics. The countries in this broad geographic range include Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Maldives, Myanmar (Burma), Nepa

Mozambique

Kathleen Sheldon

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Descriptions of dress and adornment in Mozambique were observed and discussed by visitors and Mozambicans beginning with the first written documents in the fifteenth century c.e. Mozambique—located in southeastern Africa with a long Indian Ocean coastline, also bounded by Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and South Africa—is home to several ethnic groups with a variety of styles of dress, which changed over the years as the arrival of European Christian missionaries and the spread of Islam made an impact. The

Kanga

Thadeus Shio

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A popular textile development of the late nineteenth century that spread relatively quickly to the hinterland of the East African coast is the kanga (also written as khanga), known and used by people from all walks of life—rich and poor, urban and rural, Muslims and Christians, and even lawyers, engineers, and doctors. Worn by men but most often by women, it serves as both a garment and as a nonverbal, often literate, means of communication. A kanga is a rectangular piece of cotton cloth approxim

The Indigenous Hunter-Gatherers of Sri Lanka, the Wanniyala-Aetto

Wiveca Stegeborn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Prehistoric fossae and artifacts show that 34,000 years ago ± 5,000, groups of Palaeolithic people, plausibly descendants of Homo erectus found in southern India, repeatedly migrated over Adam’s Bridge, a strip of land connecting India with Sri Lanka during glacial periods. The hominids brought with them an Acheulean stone-tool technique, along with flora and fauna. They were unclad, and no traces have been found of hides, straw, soft bark, or other perishable goods that could have been used as c

Toga

Phyllis Tortora

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

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Islamic Pilgrimage Dress (Ihram)

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Once a year, up to two million Muslims descend on the Holy City of Mecca, in Saudi Arabia, as part of the hajj, or pilgrimage. On entering Mecca, the pilgrims are said to be dressed in ihram. “Dressed in ihram” describes a pilgrim’s state of mind, body, and spiritual purity while participating in the hajj, as well as the actual clothing worn by the pilgrims while they carry out the various rituals of the hajj.

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