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Stitch Fundamentals

Lisa Donofrio-Ferrezza and Marilyn Hefferen

Source: Designing a Knitwear Collection. From Inspiration to Finished Garments, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The loop is the basic structure of knitting. When a loop is formed and used in a sequence, a knit fabric is created. When a yarn is carried horizontally to create a series of loops, the method of knitting is known as weft knitting (see Chapter 1). Weft structures may be made by hand or by machine. This is the most common method of knitting used for fabric and clothing (Figure 3.1, left). Warp knitting is the method of carrying a yarn in a sequence that requires a vertical movement (Figure 3.1, ri

Creative Design and the Development Package

Lisa Donofrio-Ferrezza and Marilyn Hefferen

Source: Designing a Knitwear Collection. From Inspiration to Finished Garments, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Inspiration for a seasonal knitwear collection comes from many sources—popular culture; the available yarns and equipment; and prevailing trends in silhouettes, stitches, patterns, and color palettes. Designers may travel to yarn and knit fairs to review the forecasted trends for seasonal yarns and stitch development and begin to purchase sample yarn for their next season. One of the largest knit fairs, Pitti Filati, takes place in Florence, Italy, twice yearly for about three days around the end

Surface-Specific Techniques

Anette Fischer and Kiran Gobin

Source: Construction for Fashion Design, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Felted woven fabrics are shrunk and compressed with heat, moisture and friction to produce a dense appearance. Some of the better-known felted fabrics are loden, melton or fleece. The edges of a felted fabric do not fray, so seams can be left unfinished. It is most common to use a plain stitched seam with top-stitching or a welt seam for light- to medium-weight felted fabric. But there are many more techniques to choose from, such as the following:

Garment Support and Structure

Anette Fischer and Kiran Gobin

Source: Construction for Fashion Design, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Throughout history, dressmakers and tailors have been working hard to achieve a certain body shape in fashion. Since humans first began to cover their bodies, supportive and structured garments have been used and modified. At first, these garments would have been purely for shelter and protection. As time went on, however, clothing began to be associated with social and/or economic status and the interest in structured garments that would accentuate certain parts of the body grew.

Introduction to Global Sourcing

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

With a clear understanding of global sourcing and supply chain, this section goes deep into global sourcing in the textile and apparel supply chain. As discussed previously, there are various members in the global textile and apparel supply chain. Figure 1.4 illustrates the interconnected relationships among various supply chain members in the global textile and apparel industry. More specifically, the ultimate suppliers in the upstream of the textile and apparel supply chain would be fiber produ

Theoretical Perspective of Global Sourcing

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The five key theories are discussed to explain international trade: (1) the law of supply and demand in international trade, (2) comparative advantage theory, (3) competitive advantage theory of nations, (4) fragmentation theory, and (5) industry life cycle theory.

Trends in Global Sourcing

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Global sourcing has fundamentally changed the nature of the global textile and apparel industry. Today, the world exports over US$800 billion worth of textiles and apparel annually (World Trade Organization [WTO], 2015). China has been the leading exporter of textiles during the 2000s and 2010s, with its export shares rising from 4.6 percent in 1980 to over 35 percent in recent years. The 28 member countries of the European Union (EU-28) collectively accounted for 36.7 percent of exports in 2000,

Global Sourcing Options

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Chapter 1 explained global sourcing as a set of business processes and activities by which businesses acquire and deliver components or fully finished products or services from outside the organization. A decision on sourcing or global sourcing is directly related to a company’s strategic decision on whether to “make or buy.” Make in this context means that a company produces parts or products on its own. Buy refers to sourcing parts or products from other organizations. Many factors must be cons

Step 1: New Product Development

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Sourcing personnel have a variety of responsibilities throughout the global supply chain. As discussed in Chapter 1, the objective of sourcing is centered on acquisition and delivery of parts or finished products and, therefore, sourcing personnel are mainly responsible for business activities related to finding and attaining the parts or products, and delivering such products to the right places at the right times. In addition to these core sourcing activities, sourcing personnel, as members of

Step 2: Macro Environmental Analysis

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

While new products are being developed, sourcing personnel take all the information on new products and start to select the most appropriate supplier to produce and deliver the products for the company. In particular, if sourcing personnel are looking into new countries as sourcing destinations, macro environmental analysis must be performed to see if entering a new country would be feasible for any given sourcing project. This chapter discusses the second stage of the seven core steps of global

Step 3: Micro-Level Supplier Analysis

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Through PESTS (political, economic, social, technological, and sustainability environments) analysis, a sourcer narrows the choices of countries for a specific sourcing project. After this step, a sourcer looks into specific factories within these countries, and compares each factory’s advantages and disadvantages as a potential supplier. This chapter discusses the third stage of the seven core steps of global sourcing—micro-level analysis for supplier selection (see Figure 7.1).

Step 4: Purchase Order and Methods of Payment

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Once initial costs are estimated and the supplier is selected, sourcers then create a purchase order, a legal sales contract. A purchase order stipulates what has been agreed between the supplier and the sourcer, including social and environmental compliance conditions, product details, quantity, price, delivery date and method, packing instruction, quality assurance policies, and so on. Methods of payment are also negotiated at this stage. Some methods of payment require a purchase order as a re

Step 5: Preproduction, Production, and Quality Assurance

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Upon completion of the purchase order, the supplier starts preparing raw materials and production techniques for main production. If the letter of credit is an agreed-on method of payment, the sourcer opens a letter of credit to the supplier through the bank. The supplier then can use that guarantee of payment by the issuing bank to finance raw material purchases or production, labor costs, and other expenses. Most sourcers in today’s marketplace are heavily involved in preproduction stages with

Step 6: Logistics and Importing Processes

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Once production is complete and goods are shipped, sourcing personnel work with the import and/or logistics department to legally import foreign goods into the sourcer’s country. Logistics has been of increasing importance in recent years as sustainability efforts have increased. Shipping’s impact on climate change, air quality, noise, and waste has been criticized and “greener” (or environmentally friendly) logistics options have been suggested by many logistics companies. In addition, each coun

Step 7: Sourcing Performance Evaluation

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

A sourcer’s main responsibilities are fulfilled when finished goods are legally entered into the sourcer’s country and arranging for physical distribution. At the end of each sourcing project, sourcers must evaluate their performance and make suggestions to better future sourcing projects. The results of a sourcing evaluation can directly affect new product development, completing the circle of the whole global sourcing process. Typically, most business activities are examined from the cost and p

Current and Future Global Sourcing

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Port, customs, and logistics issues are another macroeconomic situation with which today’s sourcing executives are concerned (Pious & Burns, 2015). This concern reflects recent port and logistics disruptions as a result of several truck drivers’ and port-workers’ strikes since 2013 in the United States. In 2015, 20,000 or more union workers of Pacific Maritime Association went on a labor strike, causing a suspension of the loading and unloading of containers and other cargo ships for almost a wee

Sportswear, Knit, and Print

John Hopkins

Source: Menswear, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Men's fashions all start as sports clothes and progress to the great occasions of state. The tail coat, which started out as a hunting coat, is just finishing such a journey. The tracksuit is just beginning one.

Design Development for Menswear

John Hopkins

Source: Menswear, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

A man should look as if he’s bought his clothes with intelligence, put them on with care and forgotten all about them.

Trend Forecasting

Sandra Keiser, Deborah Vandermar and Myrna B. Garner

Source: Beyond Design. The Synergy of Apparel Product Development, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

“Embrace the paradoxes. For every trend you can spot, there’s an equally valid countertrend at the other end of the spectrum. There is no longer one right way . . . to design a product, merchandise a line, or assort a department.”

Color Management

Sandra Keiser, Deborah Vandermar and Myrna B. Garner

Source: Beyond Design. The Synergy of Apparel Product Development, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

“Only those who love color are admitted to its beauty and immanent presence. It affords utility to all but unveils its deeper mysteries only to its devotees.”

Fabrication

Sandra Keiser, Deborah Vandermar and Myrna B. Garner

Source: Beyond Design. The Synergy of Apparel Product Development, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

“Every time that I wanted to give up, if I saw an interesting textile, print, whatever, suddenly I would see a collection.”

Fashion Politics and Practice: Indian Cottons and Consumer Innovation in Tokugawa Japan and Early Modern England, C. 1600–1800

Beverly Lemire

Source: Dress and Ideology. Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

textilescottonJapansixteenth–seventeenth centuriesEnglandsixteenth–seventeenth centuriesConsumerism, consumptionThe historical characteristics of consumer behavior have been the subject of intensive study for a generation.Among the pioneer studies see: Jan De Vries “Peasant Demand and Economic Development: Friesland 1559–1700,” in William Parker and E. L. Jones eds, European Peasants and their Markets, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975; Economic Policy and Projects: The Development of a

Suppliers, Sourcing, and Communication

David Shaw and Dimitri Koumbis

Source: Fashion Buying. From Trend Forecasting to Shop Floor, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The fashion designer<>buyer relationship is very close—however, it is ultimately the buyer who makes the final decisions and takes responsibility for putting products into the range.

Design

Richard Sorger and Jenny Udale

Source: The Fundamentals of Fashion Design, 3rd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

A garment design needs three basic ingredients:

Drapery, Bias, and Cowls

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Draped garments usually involve the direction of fabric called the bias. Fabric is woven with a crosswise and lengthwise direction. The bias is the diagonal direction extending across the grain of the fabric. The bias has a round, very elastic quality. It also has the ability to cling and fall and follow the curves of the body in a very sensual way.

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