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Book chapter

Using legacies left to them by their mother Emma, and with financial help from their father, Norman Hartnell and his sister Phyllis opened a couture house on a small scale at 10 Bruton Street, Mayfair in 1923. By 1934 Hartnell had become a very successful and wealthy couture fashion designer, and the firm moved to much larger premises at 26 Bruton Street, employing up to 500 staff and producing thousands of couture garments a year by 1939. A close study of reviews of his fashion collections in th

Gay Men’s Style: From Macaroni to Metrosexual

Adam Geczy and Vicki Karaminas

Source: Queer Style 2013

Book chapter

The term for the particular form of male style from the late eighteenth century, macaroni (or maccaroni), did in fact come from eating pasta (the Greek makaria literally means ‘food made from barley’), which had become fashionable in the 1760s through men who had returned to England after exploring the European continent, especially Italy, on the Grand Tour. Macaronis typically took pains to announce their difference in outlandish examples of foreign clothing that was either foreign—French and It

Kiss of the Whip: Bondage, Discipline and Sadomasochism, or BDSM Style

Adam Geczy and Vicki Karaminas

Source: Queer Style 2013

Book chapter

You modern men, you children of reason, cannot begin to appreciate love as pure bliss and divine serenity; indeed this kind of love is disastrous for men like you, for as soon as you try to be natural you become vulgar. To you Nature is an enemy. You have made devils of the smiling gods of Greece and have turned me into a creature of evil.

Spectacle and Sexuality: Music, Clothes and Queer Bodies

Janice Miller

Source: Fashion and Music 2011

Book chapter

In a band which might be understood to have a close relation to the emo subculture, whether technically part of it or not a creative focus on notions of death and deathliness would seem wholly appropriate. Growing partly out of the American punk scene of the 1990s and partly also a substrata of goth, emo shares similar ‘primary values … expressed through visually perceptible aspects of personal style: dress, coiffure, jewelry and tattoos and other bodily modifications. Goths are determined to fac

Wilde, Oscar

Christopher Breward

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion and Homosexuality

Shaun Cole

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Even before the twentieth century, transvestism and cross-dressing among men were associated with the act of sodomy. By the eighteenth century, many cities in Europe had developed small but secret homosexual subcultures. London’s homosexual subculture was based around inns and public houses where “mollies" congregated. Many of the mollies wore women’s clothing as both a form of self-identification and as a means of attracting sexual partners. They wore “gowns, petticoats, head-cloths, fine laced

Lesbian and Gay Dress

Shaun Cole

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although same-sex sexual activity has been occurring at least as long as the human race has been recording social activity, it was not until the late nineteenth century that terminology based on sexual identity replaced definitions and descriptions of sexual acts. Psychiatrists, sexologists, and human rights campaigners such as Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, and Karl Maria Kertbeny developed notions that same-sex attraction was related to identity and conceived terms such as urn

Cross-Dressing in Indonesia

Marianne Hulsbosch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Indonesia cross-dressing is a complex phenomenon, distinct from cross-dressing in Western societies. In Indonesia it often forms part of rituals, festivities, and sociocultural roles; there are several gender types besides the commonly understood male–female division. The most recognized is waria, male individuals displaying characteristics normally considered female and thought to have a “woman’s soul”; they are often associated with popular entertainment. Waria see themselves as assuming fem

Gender

Gertrud Lehnert

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The basic distinction between female and male dress in the Western world is between women’s skirts and men’s bifurcated trousers. Only in the twentieth century was this abandoned—but in one direction, since, even today, men do not wear skirts, despite some attempts by fashion designers. This does not indicate that trousers are more natural for men, but that in the West, they denote supremacy and masculinity. From the late Middle Ages onwards, increasing emphasis was put on gender differentiation

Queer Dress in Australia

Peter McNeil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The history of queer dress in Australia resides in the unpublished documentation and memories of gay, lesbian, and transgender people. Changing understandings of sexual practice have affected queer dress codes and bodily appearance. Australia’s queer history extends back to convict days, when the social concept of homosexuality was nonexistent, and further back to same-sex rituals and relationships forming part of some indigenous cultures. Most surviving evidence of queer coteries is metropolitan

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Persons

Andrew Reilly

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Reliable information about dress in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT) community has become available only recently. For many years negative attitudes held by much of the non-LGBT population resulted in beliefs and stereotypes that were often superficial and inaccurate. Research into the dress of members of the LGBT community is now providing a more detailed and nuanced view of the subject. When a person “comes out” or acknowledges an LGBT identity, it is often a mixed blessing;

Footwear

Giorgio Riello

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The importance of shoes in twenty-first-century Western society extends well beyond their functional use. Through their material appearance—their texture, weight, and design—shoes express abstract ideas that range from sexual appeal to allure, smartness, and informality. Shoes, therefore, are not just accessories that decorate the body or allow people to embrace the latest fashion; they convey messages that are understood across society. High heels stand for exaggerated femininity; red shoes for

Eastern Europe and the Politics of Costume at the Eurovision Song Contest

Dean Vuletic

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Eurovision Song Contest is the world’s biggest popular music contest and one of its most-watched televised events; held annually since 1956, in the early twenty-first century it has a global viewership in the hundreds of millions. In this contest, songs are selected at national preliminaries and then sent to an international final, where they are ranked by juries and viewers from the participating countries (until the late 1990s, national juries awarded votes, but since then televoting by the

Eros and Liberty at the English Masquerade, 1710–90

Terry Castle

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Collection L

Maja Gunn

Source: Fashion in Fiction. Text and Clothing in Literature, Film, and Television 2009

Book chapter

The word “lesbian” has historically often been used as a disparaging term (Aldrich 2006). But there have been other words for explaining the attraction between women. The identification with the word “lesbianism” for the contributors of Collection L was varied. For example, “Alex” (Figure 10.1) noted that women sometimes refuse the socially imposed lesbian category. Others proudly make use of the term: I don’t identify myself as a lesbian. For me lesbian is not something negative, but it is somet

Double Dresses for Double Brides

Catherine Harper

Source: Fashion in Fiction. Text and Clothing in Literature, Film, and Television 2009

Book chapter

Queer Sexualities

Dunja Brill

Source: Goth Culture. Gender, Sexuality and Style 2008

Book chapter

In the discursive structure of our culture, the concepts of gender and sexuality are closely linked and intertwined. Judith Butler’s (1990) notion of the heterosexual matrix with its dictate of heterosexual romance as the main sustainer of binary gender difference illustrates how ‘the discourses of gender and sexuality are entangled and mutually sustaining/informing’ (Gutterman, 2001, p. 62). Consequently, a discussion of sexualities in the Gothic subculture is a vital part of a thorough analysis

Hair and Male (Homo) Sexuality: ‘Up Top and Down Below’

Shaun Cole

Source: Hair. Styling, Culture and Fashion 2008

Book chapter

The French philosopher Michel Foucault (2000: 137–8), speculated on whether it was possible to create ‘a homosexual mode of life.’ He said, ‘A way of life can be shared among individuals of different age, status, and social activity. It can yield intense relations not resembling those that are institutionalised. It seems to me that a way of life can yield a culture and an ethics. To be “gay”, I think, is not to identify with the psychological traits and the visible masks of the homosexual but to

Transgressive Uniforms in Contemporary Culture

Jennifer Craik

Source: Uniforms Exposed. From Conformity to Transgression 2005

Book chapter

Why is it that countless instances of transgressive behaviour involve the adoption of some form of uniform as part of the costume or play? Why is it that the markers of discipline, authority and order are spontaneously subverted and inverted by transgressive uptakes? Garber has speculated on this phenomenon in cases of cross-dressing, for example, where women become a “spectacle” when dressed in men’s clothing, especially in men’s military and lay uniforms. She suggests that this leads “back to t

From Closet to Wardrobe?

Jan Winn and Diane Nutt

Source: Through the Wardrobe. Women’s Relationships with Their Clothes 2001

Book chapter

The popular image of the lesbian has moved from the manly, riding-crop-wielding Radclyffe Hall type, through the dungareed man-hating feminist to designer dykes and leather girls. Lesbianism has a new non-transgressive image in the media, and the lesbian world is doing its damnedest to fight off any smudges of feminism and aim for a sexuality as outlawish as that of gay men. (Ainley, 1995, p. 1)

Homosexuality Class and Dress

Shaun Cole

Source: ‘Don We Now Our Gay Apparel’. Gay Men’s Dress in the Twentieth Century 2000

Book chapter

We begged, borrowed or almost stole our fathers’, older brothers’, cousins’ battle dress tops – the tank tops, people would now say. But here the gay man started to stand out, or the young gay man. I wasn’t content to have that dreary khaki or the even the civil defence or fire fighters’ navy blue. I got the khaki, but you could at least have things dyed, and I had mine dyed a nice dark cherry red, burgundy.Cole interview with Peter Robins, 4 August 1997.

Down to Basics: Swimwear und Underwear

Shaun Cole

Source: ‘Don We Now Our Gay Apparel’. Gay Men’s Dress in the Twentieth Century 2000

Book chapter

Trash, Glamour, Punk

Shaun Cole

Source: ‘Don We Now Our Gay Apparel’. Gay Men’s Dress in the Twentieth Century 2000

Book chapter

In 1973 we renamed the shop ‘Too Fast to Live, Too Young to Die’. We were thinking of images like Rebel Without a Cause. Also about Kenneth Anger’s Scorpio Rising. This added homosexual and pornographic undercurrents to biker imagery. We also became interested in rubber and fetish clothing. The research we did for this led us into an underground fetish and sadomasochistic world. In those days not many people knew about that sort of thing. Malcolm found some under the counter catalogues with examp

Express Yourself: Clubbing at the Blitz, the Batcave, and Beyond

Shaun Cole

Source: ‘Don We Now Our Gay Apparel’. Gay Men’s Dress in the Twentieth Century 2000

Book chapter

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