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Constructing Fashionable Dress and Identity in Bhutan

Emma Dick

Source: Modern Fashion Traditions. Negotiating Tradition and Modernity through Fashion, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The relationship between ‘western style’ tailoring education and the construction of street-style fashion in Bhutan is the focus of the chapter by Emma Dick. She argues that there has been a unique interplay between exposure to international fashions and the projection of national dress in the emergence of a distinct language of street-style and associated identity in Bhutan. Central to the development of a fashion-conscious Bhutanese identity has been the blend of traditional media and new socia

Angel in the Market Place: The African-Jamaican Higgler 1880–1907

Carol Tulloch

Source: The Birth of Cool. Style Narratives of the African Diaspora, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

higgler (market trader): “A Jamaican Lady” postcardcritical draw ofLike many other African-Jamaicans featured on postcards during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, this woman’s personal details are lost to us. There is no way of knowing her age. She could be anywhere between forty and sixty. What is suggested that if she was closer to sixty, she was an ex-slave, and if nearer to forty, then her parents were enslaved. Either way, this woman had a direct link to the pre-emancipation

Dress and Cultural Aesthetics

Sharron J. Lennon, Kim P. Johnson and Nancy A. Rudd

Source: Social Psychology of Dress, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

As discussed in Chapter 1, “Why Study Dress?” culture is the predominant phenomenon that explains why humans behave in the ways they do, including the behavior of dressing. Cultural mentifacts (e.g., attitudes, beliefs, values, ideology) and sociofacts (e.g., social organizations including religious, education, government, family structure) help to explain cultural artifacts (e.g., clothing, appearance products, houses, household goods, vehicles, tools, equipment). In this chapter, we explore lev

Dress and Social Organizations

Sharron J. Lennon, Kim P. Johnson and Nancy A. Rudd

Source: Social Psychology of Dress, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Individuals who live and interact with each other and share a set of beliefs—that is, share a culture—make up the basic features of a society. A society reflects an association of individuals that makes human behavior and relationships between individuals somewhat predictable and that enables members to solve problems. By predictable, we mean that human behavior within a society is patterned and can be discussed in terms of several interrelated parts. The size of the association of individuals ca

An Ivy Boy and A Preppy Girl: Style Import-Export

Masafumi Monden

Source: Japanese Fashion Cultures. Dress and gender in contemporary Japan, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Taking great care of appearance is the first step of every fashion.

Engaging The Public in Issues of Dress And Identity: A Case Study of Amagermuseet in Denmark

Ingeborg Philipsen

Source: Fashion and Museums. Theory and Practice, 2014, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

In Denmark we do not have a tradition of wearing regional folk dress on special occasions as they do in the other Scandinavian countries, especially in Norway (Haugen 2011). Amager, however, makes an exception for this rule in Denmark: what is known as the Amager folk dress still constitutes a central element in building and reproducing the local community’s identity as does the history of the Dutch settlement. Many local men and women in this community of 11,700 citizens still pursue their Dutch

Interview Insights

Joanne Ciresi Barrett

Source: Designing Your Fashion Portfolio. From Concept to Presentation, 2013, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Throughout the text, you have seen a wide range of portfolio styles and explored various design categories illustrated by a range of design styles. The display of portfolio style choices mirrors the broad range of job choices in the apparel industry for the entry-level and experienced designer.

Kiss of the Whip: Bondage, Discipline and Sadomasochism, or BDSM Style

Adam Geczy and Vicki Karaminas

Source: Queer Style, 2013, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

You modern men, you children of reason, cannot begin to appreciate love as pure bliss and divine serenity; indeed this kind of love is disastrous for men like you, for as soon as you try to be natural you become vulgar. To you Nature is an enemy. You have made devils of the smiling gods of Greece and have turned me into a creature of evil.

Dress of the Cook Islands

Kalissa Alexeyeff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Cook Islands dress of the twenty-first century is a vibrant mixture of local, Western, and regional influences. Traces of the islands’ missionary and colonial history are also evident and reflect an ongoing incorporation of external styles and aesthetics. Since the Cook Islands gained independence in 1965, the revival of local dress practices of the past has been viewed as an important way of forging an independent nation-state. Traditional dress, primarily worn in performance contexts in the ear

Hawaiian Dress Prior to 1898

Linda Boynton Arthur

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Hawai’i is an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean, a chain referred to simply as Hawai’i or the Hawaiian Islands. The six major islands are Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, and the Big Island, that is, Hawai’i. The latter name is rarely used, in order to reduce confusion, since Hawai’i (the archipelago) became an American state in 1959. Until the late eighteenth century the peoples who inhabited these islands shared a common culture, although they were somewhat divided politically in that each had

Dress in Kiribati

Petra M. Autio

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Republic of Kiribati is a central Pacific state, which consists of thirty-three tiny atolls and reef islands scattered over a vast ocean area corresponding to one-third the size of the United States. It includes three island groups—the Gilbert, Phoenix, and Line Islands—and the island of Banaba. Apart from the Banabans, who have their own, though related, history, the Gilbert Islands chain straddling the equator is where people originally settled, and where the majority (90%) of the populatio

Iranian Fashion in the Twenty-First Century

William O. Beeman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion in the twenty-first century in Iran has become highly inventive, surprisingly innovative, and undoubtedly glamorous. This is a surprise to some in the West who are accustomed to seeing images of large public gatherings of men and women in drab clothing engaged in religious or political activities that seem to be decidedly lacking in any elements that could be called “fashionable.” Women in particular are portrayed in the all-enveloping chador, usually solid black, which has become a Weste

Fashion Journalism

Kate Nelson Best

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion journalism embraces all kinds of media commentary, but primarily newspaper and magazine articles, about the fashion industry, those who populate the fashion world, and fashion itself. As such, it has commercial, ideological, and symbolic functions that have remained unchanged since the mid-1800s.

Dress of Vanuatu

Lissant Bolton and Jean Tarisesei

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Vanuatu is an archipelago of about eighty small islands in the southwestern Pacific. It is one of the most linguistically complex regions of the world: More than 113 languages are spoken in these islands by a population (at the start of the twenty-first century) of about 200,000. This linguistic diversity is matched by cultural diversity: Not just every island, but every district has had its own distinctive knowledge and practice, and often, its own distinctive dress styles. This diversity from p

Dress Reforms of the Early Twentieth Century in Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan

Derek Bryce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

During the 1920s and 1930s, three states—Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan—embarked on a series of wide-ranging programmatic reforms designed to transform their respective societies fundamentally. Often called “modernization from above” because of their association with authoritarian elites, these reforms attempted to impose changes in state, economic, and sociocultural spheres that favored broadly Western models and to replace or restrict the practice of corresponding traditional, indigenous, or Isl

Sweden

Ulla Brück

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Historically there are several indications of an urge to follow fashion in Sweden, although changes were slow. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries medieval and Renaissance traits still dominated. In the eighteenth century, two-piece dresses for women and breeches and jackets for men became more common. Sweden has numerous varieties of provincial folk dress. Some consider these to be historic items, with strong local identification, while others see them as inventions of nineteenth-cent

Wearing Ethnic Identity: Power of Dress

Uradyn E. Bulag

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

From the earliest written records, dress in China has been used to signify a political order and to mark the boundary between civilization and barbarity. China has gone through scores of dynastic changes, each producing distinct dress codes. For more than half of its history, part or all of China has been conquered and ruled by Inner Asian pastoral nomads; as a result, the history of dress in China is fraught with identity problems. Chinese civilizational imperatives dictate that the people of a

The Turban and Male Headgear

Beverly Chico

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The turban is a widely used headdress created by winding a piece of cloth, such as linen, cotton, or silk, around the head and sometimes over a cap. Turbans vary greatly in shape, size, folds, and color; the fabric used differs in its length and width. Assigned numerous meanings, turbans have represented religious symbolism, political power, social status, and fashion consciousness. They can also fulfill practical functions, such as providing protection against natural elements like heat, cold, w

France

Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The French Revolution abolished the rigid dress etiquette and bureaucracy of the ancien régime fashion industry. Napoleon’s campaigns inspired fashions with soldierly details and created a vogue for exotic accessories. His imperial court ensured the survival of French luxury goods industries, while promoting a more modern silhouette. Napoleon encouraged pre-Revolutionary tastes for classical Greek and Roman styles, to glorify his own reign. The restoration of the Bourbon monarchy and the Romantic

Convict Dress in Australia

Julia Clark, Linda Clark, Kim Simpson, Ian Terry and Elspeth Wishart

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Following the American War of Independence, Britain could no longer send convicts there, so one hundred and sixty thousand convicts were transported to the Australian colonies between 1788 and 1868. Their management, including clothing, was an enormous undertaking. Colonial penal authorities aimed to regulate convicts, make them easily identifiable, and classify them within the penal system. However, it was difficult to establish a coherent clothing system. Until the 1820s, convict clothing was o

Lesbian and Gay Dress

Shaun Cole

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Although same-sex sexual activity has been occurring at least as long as the human race has been recording social activity, it was not until the late nineteenth century that terminology based on sexual identity replaced definitions and descriptions of sexual acts. Psychiatrists, sexologists, and human rights campaigners such as Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, and Karl Maria Kertbeny developed notions that same-sex attraction was related to identity and conceived terms such as urn

Court Dress of Thailand: History and Symbolic Significance

Susan Conway

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

According to ancient Buddhist chronicles, Thai royalty descended from heaven. Rule by divine right flourished, reinforced by the Khmer belief that kings were manifestations of Brahmanical gods. Thai royalty adopted Hindu court rituals, while Buddhist monks performed rites reflecting the belief that the king is a bodhisattva (a reincarnated Buddha who is a spiritual guide). Early figurines of boddhisatva wear long draped cloth and elaborate jewelry. Sumptuary laws reinforced belief in the king as

Manchu National Minority

Pamela Kyle Crossley

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Manchus are descended from the group of Arctic peoples in northeastern Asia that included the ancestors of the modern Ewenki, Oroqens, Hezhen, and closely related peoples of China and Russia. They were speakers of Tungusic languages (the extreme eastern branch of the hypothesized Altaic language family) and for most of their history were hunting and gathering peoples. In the 2003 census, Manchus numbered 6.9 million, or about 5 percent of the total population of China. Nearly all Manchus live

Latvia: Urban Dress

Tatjana Cvetkova and Edīte Parute

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Latvia is located at the crossroads of international trade routes and has suffered many foreign invasions. Urban fashion shows evidence of various nations that have ruled Latvia, and links with other nations have engendered a unique mix of elements, along with sensitivity to European novelties. From early times, simple, functional dress was important. This has always been embellished by ornaments and accessories. Although national details have sometimes diluted modern tendencies, urban culture ha

Polish Urban Dress in Transition from Socialism to Post-Socialism

Bogna Dowgiałło and Agnieszka Burska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Material poverty and dramatically changed social structures influenced most Polish dress in the immediate postwar period. Because ethnic minorities had been either deported or exterminated and because both the Nazis and the Soviets had taken steps to eliminate the prewar elite, Polish society had become nearly homogenous.

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