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Wearing the flag: Patriotism and Globalization

Barbara Brownie and Danny Graydon

Source: The Superhero Costume. Identity and disguise in fact and fiction 2016

Book chapter

Captain AmericaCaptain America was created as a defender of the values of the United States of America. His appearance resembles those of Olympians, for whom national allegiance becomes the defining factor in the design of their uniforms. When they inject Steve Rogers with a serum to give him super-powers, the American secret service intend that his supernatural athleticismathleticism will be used in combat, on behalf of the US Army. He is dressed in a flag-like costume, and introduced to the wor

Conclusion

M. Angela Jansen

Source: Moroccan Fashion. Design, tradition and modernity 2015

Book chapter

The main aim of this research has been to analyse Moroccan fashion as a materialization of social, cultural, political, economic and religious developments in Moroccan society, because until now Moroccan fashion has been predominantly studied as physical objects in which the materials and construction of the garments have been given primacy over their social and cultural meanings. Simultaneously, this research has aimed to contest prevailing misconceptions concerning traditional dress as being st

Jean-Charles de Castelbajac, Spring/Summer 1984

Veronica Maldonado

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

While most of de Castelbajac’s 1984 spring/summer contained serious and sensible clothes, the finale included a number of rectangular silk dresses screen-printed with images of household items such as US dollar bills, calculators, cigarette packs, and Warholian cans of Campbell’s soup. This was not the first time that de Castelbajac had shown these unconventionally shaped dresses—his previous collection had contained dresses emblazoned with internationally famous faces such as that of Charles de

Introduction: Indian Fashion

Arti Sandhu

Source: Indian Fashion. Tradition, Innovation, Style 2015

Book chapter

While conducting research on the subject of fashion and dressdress it is not uncommon to come across significant variations in the way clothing terminology is applied and understood. Hence providing a framework of terms and definitions used throughout this book is a crucial starting point for this chapter. Outlining certain dress and fashion-related terms and their meanings, like costumecostume and traditional [dress], is also necessary as they have frequently been employed [historically] in acad

A Brief History of Dress, Difference and Fashion Change in India

Arti Sandhu

Source: Indian Fashion. Tradition, Innovation, Style 2015

Book chapter

The assumption that the impetus for style change only came about during the presence of the British in India is largely untrue, as is the viewpoint that global interchange and fashion did not exist prior to the influence of contemporary forces of globalization. Indian clothing already included a diverse range of stitched and unstitched garments before European dress was introduced. Many of these had been fashioned by global interactions and local adaptations, stemming from the need to cater to In

Fashion Films, Blogs and E-Commerce: The Puzzle of Fashion Distinction in China

Simona Segre reinach

Source: Fashion Media. Past and Present 2013

Book chapter

There once was a European who wanted a new suit. Since there were no European tailors in China, he called in a Chinese tailor and asked him if he was able to copy and sew a European suit. The tailor said he could make it up, if he provided him with a model. The European found an old, worn-out suit and gave it to him. After a few days the tailor brought the new suit. The European examined it and found it perfect. The only thing was that on the shoulders of the suit the tailor had made a hole, and

Uniforms

Nigel Arch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A uniform may be defined as a prescribed set of clothing peculiar to a distinct group of individuals within a society. It is distinguished by displays of hierarchy evident on parts of the dress and will usually also display emblems that act as signals only readily interpreted by other members of the group. Hierarchy is expressed in terms of rank, and badges of rank have appeared on such elements of uniform dress as the shoulder strap and cuffs of the upper body garment. Other symbols act as remin

Croatia: Urban Dress, Twentieth to Twenty-First Centuries

Maja Arčabić

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Croatia entered the twentieth century split up into several territorial units within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Dalmatia and Istria belonged to the Austrian part, while Civil Croatia and Slavonia, as well as the city of Rijeka, were under the control of Budapest. The continuity of Croatia as a political entity in its own right was maintained by the parliament, or Sabor, which convened in Zagreb, the capital of Croatia and Slavonia, but lacked any significant authority. The border between the tw

Ideology and Ethnic Dress in Croatia

Aida Brenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Ethnic dress has been used for ideological and political purposes in Croatia from the mid-nineteenth century up through the early twenty-first century. In the course of history, individual communities have adopted clothes and clothing styles to differentiate themselves from others. Thanks to its distinctive features, dress has acted as an obvious symbol of identity. Only with the appearance of fashion and the acceptance of global fashion tendencies by elite groups from the mid-sixteenth century o

Sweden

Ulla Brück

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Historically there are several indications of an urge to follow fashion in Sweden, although changes were slow. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries medieval and Renaissance traits still dominated. In the eighteenth century, two-piece dresses for women and breeches and jackets for men became more common. Sweden has numerous varieties of provincial folk dress. Some consider these to be historic items, with strong local identification, while others see them as inventions of nineteenth-cent

Greenland

Cunera Buijs

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The extremes of the Arctic climate set Greenland dress apart from dress in the rest of West Europe. It is made from the skins and furs of animals and birds and is highly adapted to the conditions and lifestyle of the Arctic people. Even so there are distinctive regional dress cultures of the West Greenlanders (Kilaamiut), Northwest Greenlanders (Inughuit), and East Greenlanders (Tunumiit). It was only in the twentieth century that the dress of Greenlanders began to be influenced by dress in the r

Norwegian Folk Dress in the United States

Carol Colburn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Emigration from Norway to the United States lasted for approximately one hundred years, from 1825 to 1925. Norway’s terrain provided only three percent arable land; for Norwegian immigrants, the fertile plains in America’s Midwest were an attractive destination. Few packed distinctively Norwegian clothing, knowing that following local styles would indicate their intention to blend in. However, Norwegian dress echoed among the Norwegian American population through continued contact between Norway

Latvia: Urban Dress

Tatjana Cvetkova and Edīte Parute

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Latvia is located at the crossroads of international trade routes and has suffered many foreign invasions. Urban fashion shows evidence of various nations that have ruled Latvia, and links with other nations have engendered a unique mix of elements, along with sensitivity to European novelties. From early times, simple, functional dress was important. This has always been embellished by ornaments and accessories. Although national details have sometimes diluted modern tendencies, urban culture ha

Ethnic (Folk) Dress in West Europe

Helen Bradley Foster

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

European nations embrace common notions about folk dress as a symbol of cultural identity. The exception is England, a country not credited with a tradition of folk dress. Although the populations of many countries on other continents likewise recognize their own traditions of national dress, none uses the term folk to define that dress. The term and the manner in which its meaning changes over time and place help locate historical ideas about West European ethnic (folk) dress within temporal and

Why Does the United Kingdom Not Have National Dress?

Alison L. Goodrum

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The United Kingdom (UK) is multinational, comprising Wales, Scotland, England (with these three forming Great Britain), and Northern Ireland. This alliance is a product of various constitutional reforms and Acts of Union, carried out and revised over several centuries. These ongoing revisions help explain the lack of UK national dress as the expression of a stable, collective identity. The UK is effectively a collection of nations, with their own identities and recognizable national dress. The un

Independence to Present

Suzanne Gott

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The achievement of independence in sub-Saharan Africa, beginning with Ghana in 1957, continuing up to the end of South African apartheid in the early 1990s, brought new appreciation for indigenous African styles and an elevation of certain ethnic ensembles to the status of national dress. During the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, transnationalism, globalization, and worsening economies have had a significant impact on African dress practices. Western-style dress, both new and se

Heads of State and Dress

Suzanne Gott

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The modes of dress worn by African heads of state since independence have served as highly visible expressions of political philosophies and programs during different periods of national leadership. African leaders have also developed memorable trademark ensembles for projecting political personas.

The Australiana Phenomenon in Australia

Sally Gray

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The 1970s and 1980s saw a trend in Australian fashion design, consumption, fashion writing, and exhibitions toward the celebration of “Australianness,” including flora, fauna, urban vernacular themes, Aboriginal art motifs, and the idea of a national “personality” in dress. While this preoccupation was not unique to these decades, it was associated then with a wide range of clothing, leading designers like Jenny Kee and Linda Jackson, and key dates in Australian cultural history—including the Bic

Germany

Irene Guenther

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

German dress in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was closely linked to French–German relations. Critics disapproved of affluent German women’s fondness for French styles. During the Napoleonic wars, German rural folk dress often featured prominently at national festivals, manifesting patriotism. Ironically, it was with the French occupation during this time that German fragmentation consolidated, bringing a sense of “Germanness.” Industrialization occurred rapidly in the German states. Afte

The Concept of National Dress in the Nordic Countries

Bjørn Sverre Hol Haugen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In parts of West Europe, folk dress traditions developed in preindustrial rural societies, replaced by newer styles centuries ago; elsewhere, folk dress was worn daily until almost the twenty-first century. Among the northern Sámi people, and in Greenland, the last traces of folk dress are still in daily use. The defining factor of folk dress is its local character, whereas national dress is not part of daily life in local societies. Where folk dress is still worn, it is by older generations, wit

Political Candidates and Dress

Susan B. Kaiser and Janet Hethorn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In electoral politics, candidates face delicate balancing acts in matters of dress. They must represent (and therefore fit in with) the people they seek to serve; yet they also need to establish themselves as leaders who stand out/above. It helps to look good and dress well, but not to the extent that potential voters suspect the politician has little substance (and “only style”). Further considerations include the need not to appear too vain or self-absorbed. The ways in which political candidat

Croatia: Urban Dress, Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries

Andrea Klobučar

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Only a few urban centers had the status of free royal towns in seventeenth-century Croatia, which was predominately rural; fashion was for the rich. Cultural influences came via trade routes from Austria, Italy, and Germany. Fifteenth- and sixteenth-century traders from Dubrovnik had opened offices in England, wool fabrics from London being prized. Dubrovnik women, living between East and West, wore beautiful clothing from both. Eighteenth-century Croatian aristocrats imitated luxurious Parisian

Early Superhero Comic Book Costumes

Jonathan S. Marion and James Scanlan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

What collectors and historians know as the Golden Age of comics began with the debut of Superman in 1938, quickly followed by other superheroes including Batman, the Human Torch, and Namor in 1939, Captain Marvel in 1940, and Captain America and Wonder Woman in 1941. Although comic books outside the superhero genre remained popular, the burgeoning popularity of superheroes coincided with and reflected social shifts in art, politics, social mores, and sartorial technology. DC and Marvel—which by t

Antifashion in East Asian Dress: Power of Uniforms

Brian J. McVeigh

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion in East Asia reveals historical trajectories following the same path as Euro–American modernities. Modernization underpins the fashion-oriented consumerism visible today in Japan, China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, accounting for the interplay between fashion, counter-fashion, and antifashion. Counter-fashion is concerned with an interest in change and avant-garde styles. It may be associated with dissent, protest, or ridicule. Antifashion (commonly confused with counter-fashion) means styles

Hungary: Urban Dress up to 1948

Katalin Medvedev

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Hungary remained feudalist until the second half of the nineteenth century, delaying the growth of Hungarian urban fashion. Hungary is perhaps best known for colorful ethnic styles, the most renowned being male gala dress (díszmagyar). However, the elite kept abreast of European trends. In the first half of the nineteenth century, Hungary, within the Hapsburg Empire, was predominantly agricultural; fashionable town dress was mostly German-inspired. Pest and Buda—separate cities until 1873—had dis

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