Results: Text (108) Images (0)

You searched for

Modify your search terms or add filters

Filtered by

Sort by
Results per page
Results showing
1 - 25 of 108 (5 pages)
    Page 1 of 5
Subcultural Body Style History

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

From the time we are born, the human body is modified for physical, spiritual, psychological, social, and cultural transformations. In fact, prehistoric mummies found in recent years suggest that body practices, modifications, associated supplements, and rituals were significant in the earliest of human cultures (Winge 2003). In 1991 a frozen Stone Age male mummy was found in the Ötztal Alps. Nicknamed Ötzi, this mummy shows evidence of possibly the earliest body modifications ever discovered. Re

Subcultural Body Style and Identity

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

Each subculture member has individual lived body experiences, which collectively create the generalizations about the subculture’s identity. These generalizations are then further extended to collective ideas about identity regarding the individual member, the specific subculture, and the entirety of all subcultures to some degree. The subcultural body becomes an amalgam of experiences—for example, piercings, tattoos, spiky hair, and propensity toward pain. Furthermore, each subculture has unwrit

Benin

Joseph C.E. Adande

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Republic of Benin is bounded in the south by the Atlantic Ocean, in the north by Niger and Burkina Faso, in the east by Nigeria, and in the west by Togo. Thus, it naturally shares both history and culture with the peoples of these neighboring countries. In Benin, clothing, regardless of definition, is as complex and varied as its numerous linguistic groups. In the Benin Republic, Vodun adepts and masquerade performers dress primarily to please their gods and offer them the appropriate manifes

Togo

Agbenyega Adedze

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although dress in Togo is similar to that of its neighbors in West Africa, it has distinctive features that make it unique in the region. It is quite common for citizens of neighboring countries like Benin, Burkina Faso, and Ghana to identify a Togolese national by his or her clothes even though similar styles of dress might be present in these countries. Like most regions of the world, environment affects clothing choices, especially evident in practices distinguishing the north and the south of

Body Modification and Body Art

Lisa Aronson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The U.S. anthropologist Enid Schildkrout characterizes the body as a “site where culture is inscribed (and) a place where the individual is defined and inserted into the cultural landscape.” Cultures throughout the African continent use the transformed body as means for expressing identities, norms, values, and aesthetic principles through a wide range of body art media, including everything from scarification, tattooing, painting, and oiling the skin to styling the hair and reshaping designated

Tsonga Dress and Fashion

Rayda Becker

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

All Tsonga in South Africa originate from Mozambique. A small group, they have a complex history involving various migrations and names; Tsonga now primarily denotes a language. In the early 1900s Tsonga women wore skirts made of imported cotton, and beaded jewelry. Later the skirts became shorter and fuller and are now made of wool. The main changes over the last century involve the upper body, the beaded necklaces worn in the 1930s giving way to blouses and T-shirts, worn with the minceka, two

The Turban: India and Pakistan

Vandana Bhandari

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Since ancient times the turban has constituted an important part of male dress on the Indian Subcontinent. Its basic form is a wrapped headdress made from a length of fabric that is coiled or pleated and wound around the head. The type of fabric, its dimensions, color, ornament, and style of wrapping may vary, but the essential concept, purpose, and mode of construction remain the same throughout the different regions where it is worn. The turban was known by several Sanskrit names in antiquity—u

Occult Dress

Thomas A. Bilstad and Theresa M. Winge

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Occult beliefs promote nudity as occult dress, because clothing is believed to impede the flow of magical energies through the body from the surrounding environment. Wicca practitioners and witches have traditionally performed rites in the nude to show their devotion to the Wiccan goddess. Due to modesty or weather, some occultists wear robes or tunics with bare feet and no undergarments. This latter dress is believed to still allow the flow of magical energies. Many covens and magical groups hav

Dress of Vanuatu

Lissant Bolton and Jean Tarisesei

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Vanuatu is an archipelago of about eighty small islands in the southwestern Pacific. It is one of the most linguistically complex regions of the world: More than 113 languages are spoken in these islands by a population (at the start of the twenty-first century) of about 200,000. This linguistic diversity is matched by cultural diversity: Not just every island, but every district has had its own distinctive knowledge and practice, and often, its own distinctive dress styles. This diversity from p

Nepal

Claire Burkert

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Nepal’s peoples can be divided by caste, ethnicity, race, language, and religion. Most of the Indo-Aryans are Hindus whose mother tongue is Nepali. The 2001 census identified at least forty-four ethnic groups, mostly Tibeto-Burman, with distinct dress traditions. High mountain peoples comprise less than one percent of Nepal’s population. The different geoclimatic conditions strongly influence clothing. The earliest written account of clothing in Nepal comes from the third century and describes bl

Ethnic Groups of Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India

Sucheta Sen Chaudhuri and Sarit Kumar Chaudhuri

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Arunachal Pradesh, “land of the dawn-lit mountains,” is India’s easternmost state. It shares a border with Assam to the south and Nagaland to the southeast; Bhutan lies to the west, Myanmar to the east, and Tibet to the north. Briefly designated as the North East Frontier Agency (1954–1972), this area has remained, culturally and geographically, a meeting point of civilizations: Chinese, Central Asian, Southeast Asian, and Indian.

Masquerade, Theater, Dance Costumes

Herbert M. Cole

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

African masquerades, perhaps the continent’s premier art form, play grandly with illusion, ambivalence, and paradox. Masks and masquerades are both more, and less, than what they appear to be. Their illusionist play can be comic and lighthearted, or deeply serious, but always it is creative and imaginative, art and artifice. Never is it ordinary, and usually it is deeply meaningful and sometimes powerfully instrumental. Masquerades both create and help organize values and knowledge, and they are

Rites of Passage and Ritual Traditions of the Shan

Susan Conway

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Shan State is bordered by China, Tibet, Laos, and Thailand. The Shan belong to the Tai ethnic groups. Their rulers came from prominent local families, but they usually had to present tribute payments to more powerful monarchs. The major Shan religion is Theravada Buddhism, which assimilated ancient spirit religions. The Shan make textiles and cultivate cotton. They have for centuries imported Chinese and Burmese raw silk and other luxury fabrics. Exotic court dress identified rulers with the gods

Rites of Passage and Rituals in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Cambodia

Susan Conway

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The people of Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam are united by their proximity to the Mekong River and its tributaries. Indigenous and imported fabrics are worn for dress associated with religious ceremonies and other rituals. In societies where Hinduism has made an impact, particularly Thailand and Cambodia, children undergo a tonsure ceremony marking the passage from childhood to adolescence. If the ceremony is performed for a male member of the royal family, court affiliates dressed as guar

The Kingdom of Benin

Kathy Curnow

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Kingdom of Benin, a historically important traditional state, is located in southern Nigeria just north of the Niger River Delta. For centuries, its Edo people have looked to Benin City as their cultural center. The seat of a hereditary kingship, it is also a university town and state capital. The oba, its semidivine monarch, still exerts considerable influence even though the modern nation has usurped most of his political privileges. About two hundred chiefs assist him and form the aristocr

Zimbabwe

William J. Dewey

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Shona peoples represent the majority of Zimbabwe’s population, followed by the Ndebele and the Tonga; each has its dress traditions. Ancient rock paintings left by the very early San peoples depict male hunters with bows and arrows, the women wearing front and back animal-skin aprons. The Bantu speakers migrating to the region about two thousand years ago left figurines, apparently showing body scarring, but no other figurative evidence of early dress or adornment remains. Excavations have yi

Jewelry in Indonesia

Jasleen Dhamija

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The vast Indonesian archipelago is a chain of 13,667 islands. The Indonesians call their country Tanah Air Kita, “our homeland,” literally “our land and water.” The nation comprises 365 ethnic and tribal groups, each with its own language, cultural traditions, beliefs, ritual observations, and social norms. Thus, throughout the archipelago, a large number of cultural expressions have evolved over the millennia, many of which are still in use in the early twenty-first century. Even small islands h

Rites of Passage and Rituals in India

Jasleen Dhamija

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Indians are conscious of a deep connection between woven fabrics and their inner lives, viewing textiles as a second skin through which socio-religious and cultural history is absorbed into the wearer’s psyche. Weaving is one of the oldest technologies, and the terminology associated with it has been used to express philosophical concepts that are equally ancient. For example, the word sutra, originating from sut (thread) and meaning “to string together,” is used for the stringing together of the

Philippines: North

George R. Ellis

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The mountain mass comprising part of the north of Luzon, the largest and northernmost island of the Philippines, is known as the Gran Cordillera Central. Its inhabitants arrived at various periods and are known by various names, the earliest recorded being in Spanish. In one sense their dress is homogenous. Women’s basic clothing consists of a tapis (skirt), while men wear loincloths; both are sometimes complemented by jackets. Blankets are widely worn, for warmth and as finery. Hats, headdresses

The Rituals and Metaphors of Dressing

Leopoldina Fortunati

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A case study in Italy examined ritual habits connected to dressing, the gestures of fashion, and the main metaphors of dressing within a sample of four hundred respondents. In particular, three habits are important with regard to the structure of the daily ritualization of fashion and dressing: when people dress, how many times they change their clothes, and whether they dress differently at home compared to when they go out. Regarding the gestures of fashion, the study explored people’s preferen

Myanmar

Sylvia Fraser-Lu

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Myanmar, or Burma, has a complex ethnic mix, resulting in Burmese, Chinese, and Tibetan dress influences. Myanmar’s earliest, most lasting contacts were apparently with India. Indian concepts of monarchy, with the cult of godlike kings, were adopted in Myanmar. Myanmar kings on formal occasions were known to wear gold-embroidered robes, emulating the gods. The Indian Laws of Manu stipulated that women were responsible for weaving household clothing. Sixteenth-century travelers to Burma recorded t

Khil’a: Clothing to Honor a Person or Situation

Stewart Gordon

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Khil’a was a ceremony that included elite and expensive textiles made into particular garments. These garments were used to define a relationship of honorable service. At its simplest, a king or his representative bestowed on another person, usually of lower rank, an outer cloak, shirt, sash, and pants, plus often a turban and shoes. In a robing room adjacent to the court, the recipient donned the whole outfit, reemerged to the acclaim of the assembled nobles, and—if not so before—was deemed “sui

Ceremonial and Special-Occasion Dress

Michaele Thurgood Haynes

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

There is a difference between the terms ceremonial and special-occasion dress. The latter is an out-of-the-ordinary event, possibly unique. Societal conventions create parameters as to what is acceptable wear at these times, but personal clothing choices made by the participants help make it a special occasion. Ceremonial refers to repeated events occurring within a set framework, a somewhat rigid and formalized series of actions. In anthropological terms, a ceremony is generally more suitably na

Liturgical Robes in New Zealand

Sandra Heffernan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Liturgical dress worn by members of the Roman Catholic Church played an important part in daily life and religious observances, and rituals from birth to death, in colonial New Zealand. In 1838 Marist Catholic missionaries landed in the north of New Zealand, where most of the twelve Catholic mission stations were established. At this time seventy thousand Māoris were dispersed throughout the country, and there was a small European settlement of approximately twenty thousand, mostly in the ports a

Namibia

Hildi Hendrickson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Namibia, the oldest indigenous forms of dress were made from the leather hides of wild and domesticated animals, decorated with shell and locally made metal beads. Before the Colonial period, differing cultural groups and social subgroups distinguished themselves through formalized yet highly inventive hairstyles, headgear, and types of tooth modification. Cloth dress was slowly introduced via Europeans and was adopted in uneven ways. Some indigenous people began wearing cloth early in the Col

Back to top
Results showing
1 - 25 of 108 (5 pages)
Page 1 of 5