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The Consumption of Moroccan Fashion

M. Angela Jansen

Source: Moroccan Fashion. Design, tradition and modernity 2015

Book chapter

Dress is more than the clothes we put on our bodies. As Ruth Barnes and Joanne Eicher (1992: 15) formulate it, it is everything that a person does to or puts on one’s own body, including perfume, make-up, tattoos, hair extensions, etc. as well as the phenomena of anorexia, bulimia, plastic surgery, etc. ‘Dress is the sum of bodybody bodymodificationsmodifications and/or supplements displayed by a person in communicating with the other’ (1992: 15). For example, a Moroccan woman can wear a modest j

Moroccan Lifestyle Media

M. Angela Jansen

Source: Moroccan Fashion. Design, tradition and modernity 2015

Book chapter

As was discussed in Chapter 2, the Moroccan nationalist movementnationalist movement brought, among other things, tremendous changes in the lives, consciousness and ambitionambitions of Moroccan women by the middle of the twentieth century. More women were enjoying an educationeducation and soon they discovered the impact the written word could have on their cause. Therefore a first generation of Moroccan women’s magazines introduced in the 1960s were all run by renowned feminists and had a stron

The Impact of Foreign Fashion Brands

M. Angela Jansen

Source: Moroccan Fashion. Design, tradition and modernity 2015

Book chapter

What is a fashion industry? The way Welters and Lillethun (2001: xxix) describe it, a fashion industry requires several components such as: a market economy that provides wealth; adequate technology to make apparelapparel items; a distribution system that disseminates ideas about fashion as well as the products themselves; and a system democratizationof fashionof fashion innovation and adoption. Also, they say, a fashion industry is dependent on a rapidly changing infrastructure influenced by art

Conclusion

M. Angela Jansen

Source: Moroccan Fashion. Design, tradition and modernity 2015

Book chapter

The main aim of this research has been to analyse Moroccan fashion as a materialization of social, cultural, political, economic and religious developments in Moroccan society, because until now Moroccan fashion has been predominantly studied as physical objects in which the materials and construction of the garments have been given primacy over their social and cultural meanings. Simultaneously, this research has aimed to contest prevailing misconceptions concerning traditional dress as being st

Moroccan Fashion as Tradition

M. Angela Jansen

Source: Moroccan Fashion. Design, tradition and modernity 2015

Book chapter

Throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, there have been a number of political events that have had an important impact on the development of Moroccan fashion. Under the French FrenchProtectorateProtectorate, for example, it was decided to separate the new European city centres from the indigenousindigenous Arab city centres. This resulted in a cultural buffer against French cultural influences, allowing the continuity of a Moroccan lifestylelifestyle. Over time, this led to two more

Three Generations of Moroccan Fashion Designers

M. Angela Jansen

Source: Moroccan Fashion. Design, tradition and modernity 2015

Book chapter

The first generation of Moroccan fashion designers consisted of women of the Moroccan élite with no formal training in fashion design. They merely had the advantage of growing up with the luxuryluxury of high-quality craftsmanshipcraftsmanship and learned to sow and embroider at a young age, since this was considered an important part of their privileged educationeducation.Personal communication Tamy Tazi (fashion designer), July 9, 2004. They were ‘products’ of the nationalist movement in that t

Introduction

M. Angela Jansen

Source: Moroccan Fashion. Design, tradition and modernity 2015

Book chapter

It is only in the past fifteen years that ‘fashion of traditional dress’ gained the attention of social scientists, simply because it was considered a contradictio in terminis. It was probably John Flügel (1950 [1930]: 129–30) who set the trend in the 1930s by introducing his dichotomy ‘fixed’ versus ‘modish’ costume, whereby ‘fixed costume changes slowly in time, and its whole value depends, to some extent, upon its permanence’. Modish costume, on the other hand, he explains, ‘changes very rapid

African Influences in European Fashion Design

Elizabeth Kutesko

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Since the late nineteenth century, European fashion design has been lured by the exotic “otherness” of Africa as a source of creative inspiration and exotic raw materials, such as ivory and tropical woods, for use in luxury consumer goods. The more recent stylistic appropriation, since the 1970s, of African motifs, patterns, and color combinations has became increasingly prominent in European fashion and needs to be understood as part of the industry’s continual cross-cultural pursuit of innovati

Chloé

Morna Laing

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

The Empress’s Old Clothes: Biographies of African Dress at the Victoria And Albert Museum

Nicola Stylianou

Source: Dress History. New Directions in Theory and Practice 2015

Book chapter

On 20 April 1869 the V&A accessioned a number of objects from Ethiopia including clothes and jewellery that were listed in the museum register as having been given to the museum by the ‘Secretary of State for India’ and ‘belonging formerly to the Queen of Abyssinia’ (V&A 1869). At this time the V&A had not yet been divided into departments with objects being accepted for inclusion in the museum on the grounds of design excellence or as demonstrations of particular techniques. Included in this gif

Yoruba in Nigeria and Diaspora

Rowland Abiodun

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Yoruba people number well over thirty million from about sixteen ancient kingdoms. They spread all over southwestern Nigeria and extend well into the neighboring countries of Benin and Togo. The Yoruba have been urbanized since the first millennium c.e. and are well known for their fine artistic achievements, especially the naturalistic life-size bronze heads and terra-cotta sculptures of Ile-Ife. In addition to being among the most accomplished carvers in wood and ivory in Africa, the Yoruba

Benin

Joseph C.E. Adande

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Republic of Benin is bounded in the south by the Atlantic Ocean, in the north by Niger and Burkina Faso, in the east by Nigeria, and in the west by Togo. Thus, it naturally shares both history and culture with the peoples of these neighboring countries. In Benin, clothing, regardless of definition, is as complex and varied as its numerous linguistic groups. In the Benin Republic, Vodun adepts and masquerade performers dress primarily to please their gods and offer them the appropriate manifes

Togo

Agbenyega Adedze

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although dress in Togo is similar to that of its neighbors in West Africa, it has distinctive features that make it unique in the region. It is quite common for citizens of neighboring countries like Benin, Burkina Faso, and Ghana to identify a Togolese national by his or her clothes even though similar styles of dress might be present in these countries. Like most regions of the world, environment affects clothing choices, especially evident in practices distinguishing the north and the south of

Colonialism to Independence

Heather Marie Akou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A colony, also referred to as an overseas possession (a term used by imperial powers in the nineteenth century) or non-self-governing territory (a term used by the United Nations), is essentially a region governed by an external authority. From 1874 to 1957, for example, the present-day nation of Ghana was known as the Gold Coast, a colony ruled by the British Empire. On the African continent, colonies were established through settlement, commercial enterprises, treaties, or sometimes invasion. T

Somalia

Heather Marie Akou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Somalia is located in the Horn of Africa. The northern coast is less than one hundred miles from the Arabian Peninsula and shares a great deal of history and dress with that region. In the cities, houses are built with thick walls to keep out the heat; in the deserts, nomadic people live in shelters constructed of branches covered with leather or plastic, and distinct differences in dress exist. Nomadic dress has typically been more practical and flexible, consisting of leather, cotton wrappers,

Burqini

Heather Marie Akou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The burqini is a full-body swimsuit that combines the terms burqa and bikini. Aheda Zanetti, an Australian designer of Lebanese descent, created the burqini in 2006 as an alternative form of dress for Muslim women serving as lifeguards in Australia. Within months it became available to the general public worldwide. Buyers have included both Muslims and non-Muslims, who wear it for reasons ranging from modesty, to protection from UV light, to enhanced athletic performance. Similar full-body swimsu

Lower Niger Delta Peoples and Diaspora

Martha G. Anderson and E. J. Alagoa

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The inhabitants of the Niger Delta speak dozens of languages and represent nine different language groups. Populations range in size from the Ijo, a diverse group of about two million who live in communities spread throughout the Delta, to the Defaka, who number only about two hundred and occupy a single village. Larger groups include the Urhobo, Isoko, Itsekiri, Ikwerre, Ekpeye, Ogoni, and Obolo (or Andoni). Most Delta groups have maintained their own languages and distinct identities, but they

Mali

Mary Jo Arnoldi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Mali, in West Africa, is landlocked and borders seven countries. Although Mali has experienced rapid urbanization since the mid-twentieth century, the majority of Malians still live in rural communities. There are over fourteen ethnic groups in Mali. The basic everyday dress of cotton tunics, knee-length trousers, and caps for men, and wrappers and shawls for women remained popular in rural communities in south-central Mali well into the mid-twentieth century. Ethnic variations do exist but are m

Headdresses and Hairdos

Mary Jo Arnoldi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Headwear has been an important feature of everyday wear and ceremonial display in Africa from ancient times to the present day. Hats and hairstyles can mark or celebrate changes in the life cycle, denote a person’s status in the community, signal membership in a religious or initiation society, designate key participants at rituals and festivals, or identify political and religious leaders and occupational specialists. Hats designed for daily wear provide pragmatic solutions to the problem of phy

Body Modification and Body Art

Lisa Aronson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The U.S. anthropologist Enid Schildkrout characterizes the body as a “site where culture is inscribed (and) a place where the individual is defined and inserted into the cultural landscape.” Cultures throughout the African continent use the transformed body as means for expressing identities, norms, values, and aesthetic principles through a wide range of body art media, including everything from scarification, tattooing, painting, and oiling the skin to styling the hair and reshaping designated

West Africa

Lisa Aronson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

West African markets are well known for their tightly packed displays of textiles in rich arrays of colors and patterns, and tailors on their sewing machines can be heard everywhere sewing visually striking garments that seldom go unnoticed when worn in public. So vital and richly varied are textiles in West Africa that even prominent contemporary artists such as El Anatsui from Ghana and Nigeria and Yinka Shonibare from Nigeria are inspired by them as powerful mediums for discourse on historical

Morocco

Cynthia J. Becker

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Morocco has long been a crossroads between Europe, the Middle East, and sub-Saharan Africa, and dress reflects the richness of its history as well as its geographic and cultural diversity. Forty to sixty percent of the Moroccan population is Berber, and many Berbers have retained their indigenous language. After the Phoenicians and then the Romans settled in Morocco and encountered the Berbers, Arabs moved into Morocco in the seventh century, founding the city of Fes and gradually converting the

Tsonga Dress and Fashion

Rayda Becker

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

All Tsonga in South Africa originate from Mozambique. A small group, they have a complex history involving various migrations and names; Tsonga now primarily denotes a language. In the early 1900s Tsonga women wore skirts made of imported cotton, and beaded jewelry. Later the skirts became shorter and fuller and are now made of wool. The main changes over the last century involve the upper body, the beaded necklaces worn in the 1930s giving way to blouses and T-shirts, worn with the minceka, two

Malawi

Barbara W. Blackmun

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Landlocked Malawi is situated in southeast Africa. It has a large lake, a varied topography and climate, and a diverse population. Dress traditions reflect the country’s checkered history, involving foreign influence through migration, trade, and invasion. Nguni warriors from Natal conquered lakeside farming communities in the 1850s, and Arab and Yao slave traders later devastated the land, which became a British protectorate in 1890. Previously, the Maravi and Yao peoples were renowned ironworke

Okpella

Jean M. Borgatti

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Okpella dress as known from the twentieth century includes both everyday wear and dress associated with ritual and festive events, notably clothing associated with men’s and women’s title taking. For men, this includes garments donned during age-group ceremonies, the preliminary event for all subsequent title taking, as well as the apron and feathered crown worn during the Oghalo ceremony, the completion of which admits them into the body of titled elders who, in the past, formed the ruling counc

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