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Canada, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean

Brenda Sternquist and Elizabeth B. Goldsmith

Source: International Retailing, 3rd Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

Eleven: Bending Over Backwards: Lululemon Athletica

Joseph H. Hancock

Source: Brand Story. Cases and Explorations in Fashion Branding, 2nd Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Dennis “Chip” Wilson established Lululemon after taking his first yoga class because he found it to be completely exhilarating. He had previous experience in the surf, skate, and snowboard industry and felt that since a post-yoga workout was so similar, yoga would be an excellent addition.LululemonAthletica, “Lululemon Athletica: Our Company History,” http://www.lululemon.com/about/history (accessed April 25, 2015). During this time, the cotton clothing being used for yoga workouts appeared the w

Dsquared2

Paula Alaszkiewicz

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Designer Biography

‘At Once Classical and Modern’: Raymond Duncan Dress and Textiles in the Royal Ontario Museum

Alexandra Palmer

Source: Dress History. New Directions in Theory and Practice, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

I first learned about Raymond Duncan from a lecture on men in togas given by Lou Taylor in the mid-1980s. She showed an astonishing image from the turn of the century of a man walking along the banks of the Seine wearing a draped toga, sandals and pushing an enormous black perambulator. I was flabbergasted, not only by his appearance, but also by the fact that I had not heard nor read about such a colourful character during my years studying art, fashion and textile history. Since seeing his text

Linda Evangelista

Laura Peach

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

Supermodel Linda Evangelista was one of the most-seen faces in fashion, gracing over 600 magazine covers. Born in Ontario, Canada, Evangelista began modeling as a teenager. In the 1980s, she began working with photographer Peter Lindbergh, and her relationship with him transformed her into a supermodel. Evangelista was most known for the short haircut that shot her modeling career into the stratosphere, launching her as a supermodel. Although many photographs of Evangelista in the 1990s show her

Labeling Regulations and Guidelines for Manufactured Apparel

Janace E. Bubonia

Source: Apparel Quality. A Guide To Evaluating Sewn Products, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Garment labeling regulations for the United States, Canada, the European Union, and Japan will be summarized in this chapter. For a comprehensive chart and links to labeling requirements for a variety of other countries, visit the International Trade Associations Office of Textiles and Apparel (OTEXA) website and select labeling requirements (http://otexa.ita.doc.gov/). Mandatory labeling content can vary depending upon the country, but at minimum includes disclosure of fiber content. Content tha

Covering Up on the Prairies: Perceptions of Muslim Identity, Multiculturalism and Security in Canada

A. Brenda Anderson and F. Volker Greifenhagen

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America, 2013, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The Canadian mediaOur analysis is restricted to the English-language media and does not include French Canadian publications. tend to portray headcovering as a practice that is forced on women; one can never assume that it is the women’s free choice.For example, ‘The majority of women wearing face coverings are not doing so because of free will; they are doing so because some Neanderthal husband or cleric has told them it is necessary’ (Martinuk 2011; see also Bramham 2010; Kay 2010). According t

Uniforms as Work Dress for Civilians and Military

Thomas S. Abler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Uniforms are distinctive but standard forms of dress associated with particular occupations and/or social institutions and either supplied or regulated by the associated institution. In donning a uniform one assumes a social role. Since uniforms are often worn in hierarchal institutions, anyone wearing the same uniform can be expected to perform in a similar fashion in a given situation. In initial battles of World War II the soldiers and sailors of the United States wore the British-style steel

Influence of North American Indian and First Nations Dress on Mainstream Fashion

Pamela C. Baker and Phyllis G. Tortora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion designers of First Nations and North American Indian ancestry began to feel confident about being referred to as fashion designers only by the early 1970s. Fashion has not always been important to indigenous people, but telling a story has. Through their work these designers believe they are telling the story of their people; they are passionate about their work and especially passionate about how it supports their communities. The difference between North American aboriginal design and m

Evidence about Dress in Canada

Christina Bates

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Dress in Canada is a complex topic, encompassed by seventeenth-century New France, the settling of the west in the late nineteenth century, and the growing multicultural cities of the twenty-first century. Canada is a land of immigrants, from the founding nations of France and England, to the waves of European and now Asian immigration. There is the strong influence of England on the Commonwealth nation, and of the United States. The study of dress is spread unevenly across Canada, engaging acade

Caribbean Islanders

José F. Blanco

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Caribbean immigrants have contributed greatly to the multicultural and multilingual diversity of the United States and Canada for a number of years. Often grouped either with other Hispanics or with African Americans, Caribbean people are actually part of a complex mosaic of cultures, languages, and dress practices. The Caribbean, named after its main pre-Columbian inhabitants, the Carib, has been shaped by the encounter of several cultures, including native groups such as the Puerto Rican Taínos

Regional Differences in Dress and Fashion

Nancy O. Bryant

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion professionals believe that there are regional differences in dress and fashion trends in the United States and Canada. However, objective data are hard to find, as scholars have paid little attention to regional differences within these territories. National retail firms are likely to evaluate sales in different regions in order to provide a range of stock that will appeal to their customers. Trade publications report the sales volume of items in various regions. Fashion reporters use the

Writing about Fashions

Sandra Stansbery Buckland

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The twentieth century brought many innovations in the fashion world, and those innovations prompted many people to report on new fashions, to analyze them, and even to criticize them. Fashion was, and is, news. Fashion is both an artistic expression and a vital industry that makes significant contributions to a nation’s economy. And fashion is a sartorial mirror that reflects a culture’s values, beliefs, politics, and technologies. Fashion, then, can also be controversial. With so many facets to

The Northwest Coast

Kathryn B. Bunn-Marcuse

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Pacific Northwest Coast has long been known for its elaborate and distinctive art styles. This attention to form and expression is no less true for clothing, especially ceremonial clothing, than for totem poles and masks. On the Northwest Coast clothing conveys identity, status, and wealth among its indigenous people, wrapping wearers in their clan and familial identities. Today, this is most clearly seen in ceremonial regalia worn on important public occasions; but dress has always provided

Asian American

Usha Chowdhary

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

In 2004, Asian Americans represented 33 percent of the total immigrants in the United States and 50 percent in Canada. Even though previous studies show that immigrants acculturate over time and are assimilated to the new cultural values, their ethnic identity continues to be important for selected parts of their everyday life. Ethnic identity allows association between and among people based on their shared worldviews, social practices, and commonality of past experiences and helps with giving a

The Garment Industry and Retailing in Canada

Cynthia Cooper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The apparel industry is the tenth-largest manufacturing sector in Canada. Apparel is manufactured in all provinces and territories. T. Eaton Company was a department store that operated from 1869 to 1999 and became a household name in Canada as a mail order company. As one of the early large manufacturers, it led the way in vertical integration. Eaton’s introduced its first mail order catalog in 1884, a thirty-two-page booklet listing department store merchandise. While a wide variety of merchand

Masquerade Dress

Cynthia Cooper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Masquerade rituals and entertainments popular in North America were initially derived from European tradition and fashionable practices. Mummering and Mardi Gras, both forms of masked celebration that had roots in the Middle Ages in Europe, took on their own unique character in the specific regions of Canada and the United States where they persisted. When the European vogue for public masquerade declined at the beginning of the nineteenth century in favor of private fancy dress balls and parties

Television

Patricia A. Cunningham

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

In 1948, when Wayne Cox of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) pronounced that television is here to stay, he could not have predicted the real impact this new force unleashed. Writing in 1964, Marshall McLuhan had a better grasp of the situation, claiming that television had potential to transform the world into a “global village.” Television is a powerful tool that gains its power through its ability to express ideas through sight and sound. Fashion and television began a symbiotic rela

The Pattern Industry

Carol Anne Dickson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The pattern industry in the United States and Canada had as its antecedents a number of earlier attempts to simplify the making of garments. The first patterns, made by cloistered monks, consisted of only two pieces. In the thirteenth century, French master tailor Charles Daillac began making his patterns out of thin pieces of wood. In the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, fashion journals began to appear, illustrating and describing the increasingly complex fashions of the times. In

The Jewelry Industry

Carol Anne Dickson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

From early times, men and women have sought to adorn themselves. The desire to adorn the body answered several needs: communication of identity, including status and kinship, as well as symbols of protection and spiritual beliefs. The desire to express beliefs, status, and affiliations grew as the number of family members grew and the number of families who formed groups expanded. It is certain that jewelry antedates clothing. Whether it was worn for artistic display or utility, we do not know fo

Amish, Mennonites, Hutterites, and Brethren

Jean L. Druesedow

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Anabaptists derive their name because the early practitioners of this branch of Protestantism sought to be rebaptized as adults although they had been baptized as children. There are four major Anabaptist groups: Hutterites, Mennonites, Brethren, and Amish, with subgroups within each category. Dress is an important means used by many Anabaptist groups to define their affiliation with a particular church, indicate their humility and willingness to submit to church discipline, and demonstrate their

Body and Dress

Angela Durante and Jenny Ellison

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

All human cultures engage in some form of dress and adornment. Although our bodies and the items we put on them might appear to be separate, they in fact have a great deal in common and are considerably intertwined. A dressed body represents a complex set of negotiations between an individual, the fashion system, and the social context in which they exist. Codes of dress set parameters but do not entirely determine how individuals dress. The body and dress are mutually constitutive—dress adds soc

Middle Eastern

Mary H. Farahnakian

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The dress and fashion of Middle Eastern immigrants emphasize copying, retooling, and reinterpreting traditions and developing new identities in the United States and Canada. These changes are generally influenced by their immigration background, dress design, and values of traditional and nontraditional immigrants. They also include religious values and customs as well as types, significance, and appropriateness of dress fit and design.

Health

Jane Farrell-Beck

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

In most environments on Earth, clothing provides needed protection from the elements and other hazards. Yet over the past two centuries, dress has been vilified as the source of disease and death or lauded as a device for improving health and physical vigor. Writers have often directed their prescriptions and proscriptions toward women’s dress, but they also critiqued men’s and children’s apparel. An early health concern was problems and solutions connected to microbes and dermatological hazards,

American Immigrants of West European Origin

Judy Zaccagnini Flynn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The dress of North American immigrants from Western Europe is a reflection of the evolution of their sociocultural experience as they went from their homelands to the New World. Immigration has existed from the early times of settlement in North America to the present. Western Europe (defined in 1890 as Italy, Spain, France, Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Austria-Hungry, Switzerland, France, and Luxembourg) provided the largest number of immigrants to the United Sta

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