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Internationalization of Retailing

Brenda Sternquist and Elizabeth B. Goldsmith

Source: International Retailing, 3rd Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

Retailing in Developing and Emerging Markets

Brenda Sternquist and Elizabeth B. Goldsmith

Source: International Retailing, 3rd Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

Retailing in Multinational Markets

Brenda Sternquist and Elizabeth B. Goldsmith

Source: International Retailing, 3rd Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

The Middle East and Africa

Brenda Sternquist and Elizabeth B. Goldsmith

Source: International Retailing, 3rd Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

Ottoman costume in the context of modern Turkish fashion design

Şakir Özüdoğru

Source: Modern Fashion Traditions. Negotiating Tradition and Modernity through Fashion, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Reflecting the desire to achieve international recognition, Sakir Özüdoğru argues that Turkish designers have incorporated (traditional) Ottoman clothing elements in collections as a superficial commercial strategy, rather than a desire to reflect the socio-cultural values of a Turkey in transition. Instead, Özüdoğru suggests that Ottoman references are simply a source of visual inspiration within the context of western Orientalism. In contrast to exploring and unpacking Ottoman heritage as an a

Secular Fashion In Israel

Oz Almog

Source: Dress and Ideology. Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

national dress/costumeSabraIsrael, twentieth centuryIn national images depicting the early years of the State of Israel, the word “fashion” is deliberately associated with the unkempt pioneering sabra look: khakikhaki shorts and blue shirts characteristic of the socialist youth movements, pinafores and rubashka shirts influenced by Eastern European style, Bedouin kaffiyahkaffiyahs, biblical sandals, and dome-shaped caps known as kova tembel. To a large extent, this look became Israel’s national m

How Muslim Women Dress in Israel

Oz Almog

Source: Dress and Ideology. Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Islamic/Muslim dressIn order to understand fully Muslim female dress in Israel, some basic concepts will be clarified here. Islam, like most other religions, regulates the behavior of its believers.Linda B. Arthur ed., “Introduction,” Religion, Dress and the Body, Oxford and NY: Berg, 1999, p. 1. Like other faiths, its legal code lays down rules regarding the related fields of clothing and sexuality.Steele, Valerie, Fashion and Eroticism, Ideals of Feminine Beauty from the Victorian Era to the Ja

Turkey

Elida Camille Behar, Shubhapriya Bennur and Serkan Yalcin

Source: Retailing In Emerging Markets, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Turkeyemerging marketsTurkeyAfter reading this chapter, you will

Qatar

Shubhapriya Bennur, Md. Rashaduzzaman, Samirah Alotaibi and Yiyue Fan

Source: Retailing In Emerging Markets, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Qataroverview and historyQatarThe State of Qatar is situated on a peninsula projecting into the Arabian Gulf, bordering Saudi Arabia to the south. Prior to the discovery of oil, the Qatari economy was largely based on pearl fishing. Within its 11,586 km2, Qatar holds the world’s third-largest gas reserves and the largest single non-associated gas field. Today, through the careful exploitation of these massive hydrocarbon resources, Qatar ranks as one of the richest nations in the world, achieving

Military Dress as an Ideological Marker in Roman Palestine

Guy D. Stiebel

Source: Dress and Ideology. Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Only a few instances from the Roman Empire actually provide scholars with near-complete assemblages of panoplies, and most rare of all are the remains that derived directly from conflict lands. In addition to the celebrated navy soldier from ce79 Herculaneum,R. Gore, “2000 Years of Silence: The Dead Do Tell Tales at Vesuvius,” National Geographic, 165 (1984), pp. 557–613; S. Ortisi “Pompeji und Herculaneum—Soldaten in den Vesuvsdäten,” Archäologie der Schlachtfelder—Militaria aus Zerstörungshoriz

The Ancient Middle East, c. 3500–600 BCE

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume. Student Study Guide, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

The Ancient Middle East c. 3500 – 600 BCE

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

One of the most outstanding aspects of Egyptian civilization is the relative slowness with which changes occurred. It is not that there were no significant changes in the 3,000 years during which this civilization existed, but they took place so gradually that they seemed almost imperceptible, even over several hundred years. For almost 3,000 years, Egyptian civilization was scarcely affected by foreign cultural and political influences. According to historian Fairservis (1962), “Between the Egy

The Twenties, Thirties, and World War II 1920–1947

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

With the end of World War I, Europe and the United States hoped for a return to normalcy. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, a strong proponent of the League of Nations, campaigned arduously for ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and membership for the United States in the League. These efforts cost him his health—he suffered a breakdown in 1919—and he was an invalid for the remainder of his 17 months in office. In the end, the Senate defeated the treaty, and the United States never joined the

Şule Yüksel Şenler: An Early Style Icon of Urban Islamic Fashion in Turkey

Rustem Ertug Altinay

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America, 2013, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The formative years of the Republic of Turkey were characterized by a series of social and legal reforms implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in order to construct a secular (albeit implicitly Sunni Muslim), modern, Western nation-state with an authentic Turkish essence. In Turkey’s modernization and nation-building program, women were imagined as the builders of a new life, ‘a modern way of living both in the private and the public spaces’ (Göle 1997: 51). They were expected

1690–1815: Chinoiserie, Indiennerie, Turquerie and Egyptomania

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century, 2013, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

See, mademoiselle, how that goes well with your Chinese-style hairstyle, your mantle of peacock feathers, your petticoat of celadon and gold, your cinnamon bottoms and your shoes of jade…

1868–1944: The Japoniste Revolution, the Deorientalizing of the Orient and the Birth of Couture

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century, 2013, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Civilization! Read: ‘the era that has lost almost all its creative power…in jewellery as in furniture’; and in one or the other we are compelled to exhume or import. Import what? Indian bracelets of glass filament and Chinese earrings of cut paper? No. But more often the naïve taste that underlies their making.

Transnational Networks of Veiling-fashion between Turkey and Western Europe

Banu Gökarıksel and Anna Secor

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America, 2013, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The Turkish veiling-fashion industry, while paralleling many of the broader trends in apparel production in Turkey, nonetheless has a unique profile. In the autumn of 2008, we conducted a detailed survey with 174 veiling-fashion firms (that is, firms with 10 per cent or more of their production in Islamic dress for women), which we identified through the membership lists of textile associations, advertising and industry fairs. We estimate that there are a total of 200 to 225 such firms in the cou

The Genealogy of the Turkish Pardösü in the Netherlands

R. Arzu Ünal

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America, 2013, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Three-quarter-length overcoats were the most commonly worn outdoor attire mentioned in the accounts of migrant women coming to the Netherlands in the late 1970s. A few Turkish women came alone as workers;most of them were the wives of guest workers and came as temporary residents. The first generation of migrant women described that particular style of overcoat as the first modern and şehirli(urban) item of outdoor clothing they had ever worn. These were relatively close-fitting overcoats, intend

Burqini

Heather Marie Akou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The burqini is a full-body swimsuit that combines the terms burqa and bikini. Aheda Zanetti, an Australian designer of Lebanese descent, created the burqini in 2006 as an alternative form of dress for Muslim women serving as lifeguards in Australia. Within months it became available to the general public worldwide. Buyers have included both Muslims and non-Muslims, who wear it for reasons ranging from modesty, to protection from UV light, to enhanced athletic performance. Similar full-body swimsu

Iraqi Dress

Ulrike Al-Khamis and Saad Lafta Hami

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Iraq is one of the largest countries in southwestern Asia. It is bordered by Iran to the east, Turkey to the north, Syria and Jordan to the west, and Saudi Arabia and Kuwait to the south. Iraq’s capital is Baghdad. Geographically, the country combines three distinct regions: fertile mountain regions in the north, the rich alluvial valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, and expansive, arid desert plains in the west. Both the terrain and the bordering countries have had an influence on dress.

An Omani Fashion Designer

Julia M. Al-Zadjali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Nawal bint Hamed bin Hamid Al-Hooti is an Omani national in her thirties and a self-taught fashion designer. Throughout her youth Nawal had had a love for fashion and began designing at a surprisingly young age, visiting the tailor shop near her home. The Omani people were not always as open to worldly fashions as they are in the early twenty-first century, but since the ascension of Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al-Said to the throne in 1970, there have been many social and economic changes in Oman. Na

Omani Dress

Julia M. Al-Zadjali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The English-speaking travelers of the past referred to Oman as the hidden corner of Arabia, yet Oman was and remains well known to its neighbors. It has an elaborate and rich history in the region, and the striking similarities to Oman’s neighbors that are found in dress throughout the country suggest that Oman has experienced many cultural, trade, and economic friendships over the centuries, which have left their mark. It is only in the early twenty-first century that attention is being paid to

Perfume and Incense

Julia Al-Zadjali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The use of perfumes is widespread throughout the Middle East. Throughout the Arab world a wide variety of spices, aromatic woods, flowers, seeds, and plants, such as ginger, pepper, and sandalwood are used for incense and perfumes. Many of these come from India. The essential oils from these sources are very important ingredients for both incenses (bakhoor) and perfumes. Sold at various prices, it is generally agreed that the more one pays for such an oil, the finer it is. For thousands of years

Iranian Fashion in the Twenty-First Century

William O. Beeman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion in the twenty-first century in Iran has become highly inventive, surprisingly innovative, and undoubtedly glamorous. This is a surprise to some in the West who are accustomed to seeing images of large public gatherings of men and women in drab clothing engaged in religious or political activities that seem to be decidedly lacking in any elements that could be called “fashionable.” Women in particular are portrayed in the all-enveloping chador, usually solid black, which has become a Weste

Dress Reforms of the Early Twentieth Century in Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan

Derek Bryce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

During the 1920s and 1930s, three states—Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan—embarked on a series of wide-ranging programmatic reforms designed to transform their respective societies fundamentally. Often called “modernization from above” because of their association with authoritarian elites, these reforms attempted to impose changes in state, economic, and sociocultural spheres that favored broadly Western models and to replace or restrict the practice of corresponding traditional, indigenous, or Isl

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