Results: Text (1220) Images (0)

Sort by
Results per page
Results showing
1 - 25 of 1220 (49 pages)
    Page 1 of 49
IT in the Clothing Industry

Céline Abecassis-Moedas

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Information technology (IT) in the clothing industry is one of the elements that allows the latest fashion trends from the catwalks to be transformed into mass-market products within days. In clothing manufacturing, it is important to distinguish between preassembly of garments (design, marker-making, or putting the patterns on the fabric, spreading the fabric, cutting, and bundling operations) and garment assembly. Most of the innovations in production and information technologies are taking pla

Yoruba in Nigeria and Diaspora

Rowland Abiodun

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Yoruba people number well over thirty million from about sixteen ancient kingdoms. They spread all over southwestern Nigeria and extend well into the neighboring countries of Benin and Togo. The Yoruba have been urbanized since the first millennium c.e. and are well known for their fine artistic achievements, especially the naturalistic life-size bronze heads and terra-cotta sculptures of Ile-Ife. In addition to being among the most accomplished carvers in wood and ivory in Africa, the Yoruba

Uniforms as Work Dress for Civilians and Military

Thomas S. Abler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Uniforms are distinctive but standard forms of dress associated with particular occupations and/or social institutions and either supplied or regulated by the associated institution. In donning a uniform one assumes a social role. Since uniforms are often worn in hierarchal institutions, anyone wearing the same uniform can be expected to perform in a similar fashion in a given situation. In initial battles of World War II the soldiers and sailors of the United States wore the British-style steel

Benin

Joseph C.E. Adande

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Republic of Benin is bounded in the south by the Atlantic Ocean, in the north by Niger and Burkina Faso, in the east by Nigeria, and in the west by Togo. Thus, it naturally shares both history and culture with the peoples of these neighboring countries. In Benin, clothing, regardless of definition, is as complex and varied as its numerous linguistic groups. In the Benin Republic, Vodun adepts and masquerade performers dress primarily to please their gods and offer them the appropriate manifes

Togo

Agbenyega Adedze

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Although dress in Togo is similar to that of its neighbors in West Africa, it has distinctive features that make it unique in the region. It is quite common for citizens of neighboring countries like Benin, Burkina Faso, and Ghana to identify a Togolese national by his or her clothes even though similar styles of dress might be present in these countries. Like most regions of the world, environment affects clothing choices, especially evident in practices distinguishing the north and the south of

Lookism

Alyssa Adomatis and Diana Saiki

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

There can be social injustices because of physical appearance, whether one is attractive or unattractive. “Lookism” is a term that describes discrimination on the basis of physical appearance. The term has been gaining traction in certain popular culture, labor, and employment journals, and also in the academic press. Lookism is also referred to as “aesthetic capital.” Different aspects of lookism are examined, including its history, critical definitions related to it, the context where it has be

Garments, International Trade in

Teri Agins

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Ladakh

Monisha Ahmed

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Situated in the upper reaches of the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges, Ladakh is India’s high-altitude border region, characterized by an extraordinary desertlike landscape where barren mountains thrust toward an intensely blue sky, punctuated by green oases that reveal human habitation. Living in extreme weather conditions where temperatures drop to minus 58 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 50 degrees Celsius) in winter and rise to 104 degrees Fahrenheit (40 degrees Celsius)in summer, Ladakh’s i

Himalayan Buddhist Communities

Monisha Ahmed

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Dress among the Himalayan Buddhist communities of India reflects the physical, socioeconomic and cultural environment prevalent there. The fabrics used for clothing extend from elaborately patterned silk brocade garments to simple homespun materials. Tibetan styles have predominantly influenced the dress worn in these areas. The men of Lahaul, Spiti, and Kinnaur in Himachal Pradesh wear woolen caps and coats, cotton shirts, and trousers. In Kinnaur female dress comprises Tibetan-style robes with

Overview of Mongolia

Monisha Ahmed

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Walking down the main street in Ulan Bator, Mongolia’s capital, past gray, crumbling Soviet-era buildings, a woman wearing a blue silk del, or robe, contrasts with the robust man by her side in a sober, gray Western-style suit. Walking alongside them are women in skinny jeans, fitted T-shirts, and stiletto heels. But far from the city, a nomad wears his sheepskin robe, sitting astride his horse. Mongolia has many faces. Probably the most celebrated of these is Chinggis Khaan, better known by his

Dress of the Exile: Tibetan

Monisha Ahmed and Susan Vickery

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The most enduring symbol of Tibet’s struggle for freedom is its national flag—a mountain with two snow lions in the foreground and in the background the sun, surrounded by red and blue bands. With the words “Free Tibet” added, it is embroidered onto T-shirts, screen-printed on bags, made into labels for shawls, and knitted into hats and baby sweaters. The design of the flag dates from the seventh century, when various regiments within the Tibetan army had military flags depicting single or paired

Missionary Dress in Samoa

Prue Ahrens

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The first European Christian missionaries to establish a station in the South Pacific were members of the London Missionary Society (LMS) who arrived in Tahiti in 1797. Over the next one hundred years a number of European Christian denominations established missions there. For example, mission stations were established in Tonga by Wesleyans (1826) and Marists (1832), and in the Gilberts and Ellice Islands (now Kiribati and Tuvalu) by the LMS (1877) and the Catholic Sacred Heart Mission (1881). In

Aboriginal Dress in the Kimberley, Western Australia

Kim Akerman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

As in most other areas of Australia, the Aboriginals of the Kimberley were traditionally unclothed. For them, dress consisted of headbands and hair belts. Pubic tassels (made by tying multiple strands of spun fur or hair string into a mop, suspended over the genital area) were worn occasionally. Other elements of dress consisted of ornaments made from feathers, fibers, animal teeth, or shell, the use of which was often dictated by the ceremonial and social status of the wearer. More complex ornam

Colonialism to Independence

Heather Marie Akou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

A colony, also referred to as an overseas possession (a term used by imperial powers in the nineteenth century) or non-self-governing territory (a term used by the United Nations), is essentially a region governed by an external authority. From 1874 to 1957, for example, the present-day nation of Ghana was known as the Gold Coast, a colony ruled by the British Empire. On the African continent, colonies were established through settlement, commercial enterprises, treaties, or sometimes invasion. T

Somalia

Heather Marie Akou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Somalia is located in the Horn of Africa. The northern coast is less than one hundred miles from the Arabian Peninsula and shares a great deal of history and dress with that region. In the cities, houses are built with thick walls to keep out the heat; in the deserts, nomadic people live in shelters constructed of branches covered with leather or plastic, and distinct differences in dress exist. Nomadic dress has typically been more practical and flexible, consisting of leather, cotton wrappers,

Burqini

Heather Marie Akou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The burqini is a full-body swimsuit that combines the terms burqa and bikini. Aheda Zanetti, an Australian designer of Lebanese descent, created the burqini in 2006 as an alternative form of dress for Muslim women serving as lifeguards in Australia. Within months it became available to the general public worldwide. Buyers have included both Muslims and non-Muslims, who wear it for reasons ranging from modesty, to protection from UV light, to enhanced athletic performance. Similar full-body swimsu

Iraqi Dress

Ulrike Al-Khamis and Saad Lafta Hami

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Iraq is one of the largest countries in southwestern Asia. It is bordered by Iran to the east, Turkey to the north, Syria and Jordan to the west, and Saudi Arabia and Kuwait to the south. Iraq’s capital is Baghdad. Geographically, the country combines three distinct regions: fertile mountain regions in the north, the rich alluvial valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, and expansive, arid desert plains in the west. Both the terrain and the bordering countries have had an influence on dress.

An Omani Fashion Designer

Julia M. Al-Zadjali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Nawal bint Hamed bin Hamid Al-Hooti is an Omani national in her thirties and a self-taught fashion designer. Throughout her youth Nawal had had a love for fashion and began designing at a surprisingly young age, visiting the tailor shop near her home. The Omani people were not always as open to worldly fashions as they are in the early twenty-first century, but since the ascension of Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al-Said to the throne in 1970, there have been many social and economic changes in Oman. Na

Omani Dress

Julia M. Al-Zadjali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The English-speaking travelers of the past referred to Oman as the hidden corner of Arabia, yet Oman was and remains well known to its neighbors. It has an elaborate and rich history in the region, and the striking similarities to Oman’s neighbors that are found in dress throughout the country suggest that Oman has experienced many cultural, trade, and economic friendships over the centuries, which have left their mark. It is only in the early twenty-first century that attention is being paid to

Perfume and Incense

Julia Al-Zadjali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The use of perfumes is widespread throughout the Middle East. Throughout the Arab world a wide variety of spices, aromatic woods, flowers, seeds, and plants, such as ginger, pepper, and sandalwood are used for incense and perfumes. Many of these come from India. The essential oils from these sources are very important ingredients for both incenses (bakhoor) and perfumes. Sold at various prices, it is generally agreed that the more one pays for such an oil, the finer it is. For thousands of years

Dress of the Cook Islands

Kalissa Alexeyeff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Cook Islands dress of the twenty-first century is a vibrant mixture of local, Western, and regional influences. Traces of the islands’ missionary and colonial history are also evident and reflect an ongoing incorporation of external styles and aesthetics. Since the Cook Islands gained independence in 1965, the revival of local dress practices of the past has been viewed as an important way of forging an independent nation-state. Traditional dress, primarily worn in performance contexts in the ear

Masquerade and Masked Balls

Ann Ilan Alter

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion Designers, Seamstresses, and Tailors

Cynthia Amnéus

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Throughout the nineteenth century, North American fashion followed the dictates of French design. American dressmakers and tailors looked to Paris for the newest silhouettes and adapted them to the American lifestyle. It was not until the 1930s that independent fashion designers emerged and rejected the idea that all fashion must be inspired by Paris. These early designers created a unique “American look” that was predicated on comfort. This design tended to be more casual, with an air of sophist

Tweed

Fiona Anderson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Tweed cloth originated in Scotland in the early nineteenth century. At that time, it was only made from woolen yarns in the twill weave. From the 1820s to the present, tweed has been characterized by a huge range of color and weave effects. The main account given for the origins of the name tweed is that it is based on a misreading of the Scottish word tweel or twill (which was the weave characteristic of Scottish woolens at that time) for tweed. By the 1840s, tweed was established as a term used

Shoes, Men’s

Fiona Anderson

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The rise of France as an international fashion center under Louis XIV (1643–1715) promoted the popularity of French court styles. Shoes were adorned with decorative buckles, a style that remained highly fashionable until the 1780s. Buckles were bought as separate items and by the late eighteenth century they were available for all tastes and pockets, from sparkling precious stones for the wealthy, to plain steel, brass, and pinchbeck for the lower orders.

Back to top
Results showing
1 - 25 of 1220 (49 pages)
Page 1 of 49