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Balenciaga

Casey Mackenzie Johnson

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

France

Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The French Revolution abolished the rigid dress etiquette and bureaucracy of the ancien régime fashion industry. Napoleon’s campaigns inspired fashions with soldierly details and created a vogue for exotic accessories. His imperial court ensured the survival of French luxury goods industries, while promoting a more modern silhouette. Napoleon encouraged pre-Revolutionary tastes for classical Greek and Roman styles, to glorify his own reign. The restoration of the Bourbon monarchy and the Romantic

Little Black Dress

Liz Gessner

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The little black dress has long been a star of page and screen, its ability to convey meaning a powerful tool. Edith Wharton’s Ellen Olenska in The Age of Innocence wore black and shocked New York’s high society when she decided to get a divorce. Majorie Morningstar, the eponymous heroine of Herman Wouk’s novel, wore black, as did Mrs. Danvers of Rebecca. Jeanne Moreau was an image of perfection in her Chanel little black dress, chignon, and pearls in Louis Malle’s The Lovers. But in The Bride Wo

Cyberpunk

Sandra J. Ley

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

“Cyberpunk” refers to a subgenre of postmodern science-fiction literature set in a dystopian near-future in which alienated countercultural antiheroes struggle to survive and reclaim power in a society dominated by technology and mega-corporations. The term originated from the title of a story written in 1982 by Bruce Bethke, who combined the term “cybernetics,” the science of replacing human functions with computerized ones, and “punk,” the nihilistic counterculture youth movement that originate

Balenciaga, Cristóbal

Lesley Ellis Miller

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

While the reasons for Balenciaga’s departure from Spain in 1935 at the age of forty, and his subsequent establishment in Paris, are not clear, it is probable that the commercial and political situation in Europe contributed to his move. In the 1930s Paris was the fashion mecca not only for ambitious designers but also for the cosmopolitan women they dressed. The French government fostered couture and its ancillary trades because they were important national export industries. Subsidies encouraged

Spain

Silvia Ventosa

Translated by Lucy Lawton

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The influence of Spanish dress on European fashions is concentrated in two periods: the period of court life of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries with the moda a la española (Spanish-style fashion), and that of the majos, members of the Madrid artistic scene at the end of the eighteenth century and during the nineteenth century. The stereotypical image of the Spanish was fixed around 1800, an image that emanated from the south, from Andalusia, and this stereotype still survives in the early

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