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Codpiece

Sandra Lee Evenson

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Linen

Margarita Gleba

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Since prehistory, linen, made from flax, has been one of the most widely used textile materials. Linen does not take easily to natural dyes, so before the advent of synthetic colorants it was rarely dyed. Linen is particularly suitable for utilitarian fabrics, owing to its strength, low elasticity, and durability. The earliest known textiles are linen. In Europe, flax was cultivated by the second half of the seventh millennium b.c.e. Some surviving fabrics are so fine that they still cannot be du

Summer: The Last Century

Timothy Brook

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

[…] Against the sensible and conservative advice of Li Jinde was the contrary urge among merchants and gentry alike to pit themselves in an endless struggle of status competition, and there is no site in which to watch this struggle played out in the late Ming that is more colorful than the volatile arena of fashion. The readiness of late-Ming people to follow fashion was not a complex matter of moral lapse, as the author of Bringing Merchants to Their Senses might like to think. It was the simpl

Society and Festivals

Jacob Burckhardt

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Prescribing Fashion: Dress, Politics and Gender in Sixteenth-Century Italian Conduct Literature

Elizabeth Currie

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

In the evening, when it is customary for Florentines to go out often, they wear caps on their heads, and cloaks in the Spanish style, that is with a hood at the back. Men who wear these during the day, unless they are soldiers, are considered disreputable and shabby. In the house they wear a large beret in the winter, and either a frock-coat or a catelano; in the summer a small beret, a house-coat of cloth or gabardine from Lille. Whoever rides horses wears a cloak or some type of loose over-coat

The Renaissance Beard: Masculinity in Early Modern England

Will Fisher

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

This essay builds on Judith Butler's recent theoretical work in Bodies that Matter by suggesting that the sexual differences that “mattered” in early modern England are not exactly the same as those that “matter” today. In particular, it suggests that facial hair often conferred masculinity during the Renaissance: the beard made the man. The centrality of the beard is powerfully demonstrated by both portraits and theatrical practices. Indeed, virtually all men in portraits painted between the mid

The Currency of Clothing

Ann Rosalind Jones and Peter Stallybrass

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

The Broker (skorning to bee called Vsurer) will lend none money, at ten in the hundred, vpon bond or securitie, but (for sooth) Sir if you will bring a pawne worth double the summe you desire, and make a bill of Sale, you shall haue halfe, or sometimes the third of the value thereof … Item, deliuered to Mistris Spendthrift vpon a bill of Sale, the first of Ianuarie, 1618, for a Taffata Peticote, a Beuer Hat, Gold Band, Yellow Feather,

Far Eastern Influences in Latin American Fashions

Araceli Tinajero

Source: The Latin American Fashion Reader 2005

Book chapter

Fashioning Appearances

Susan Vincent

Source: Dressing the Elite. Dressing the Elite Clothes in Early Modern England 2003

Book chapter

The story of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century fashion can be told very simply. Our starting point is a sketch of a clothed male figure dating from the 1570s (Figure 1). The drawing comes from the marginalia of a York Archbishop’s Register, and was presumably penned idly by some bored clerk.BIHR, Cons. AB. 33 (1570–2), fol. 13v. There are two almost identical sketches on fols 12v and 13v. The sketch indicates that our modern gestalt of the appearance of an Elizabethan was very close to theirs. T

Addressing the Body

Susan Vincent

Source: Dressing the Elite. Dressing the Elite Clothes in Early Modern England 2003

Book chapter

Later generations tend to look back in sartorial judgement, and impute to early modern dress a negative range of values. It was surely restrictive, unhygienic, uncomfortable, unhealthy and impractical. It must have got in the way. To wear it would have needed endurance, and those who did are pitied, and wondered at. Such sentiments are found expressed in much historiographical comment. For example, G.R. Elton wrote of Tudor dress that ‘the huge hooped skirts rendered movement difficult, while the

Clothes Make the Man

Susan Vincent

Source: Dressing the Elite. Dressing the Elite Clothes in Early Modern England 2003

Book chapter

Phineas Pett (Figure 6), eventually to become a master shipbuilder and naval commissioner, described his strategy for advancing his fortunes. As a young man in dire financial straits he was yet ‘contented to take any pains to get something to apparel myself, which by God’s blessing I performed before Easter next after, and that in very good fashion, always endeavouring to keep company with men of good rank far better than myself’.The Autobiography of Phineas Pett, ed. by E.G.Perrin, Navy Records

None Shall Wear

Susan Vincent

Source: Dressing the Elite. Dressing the Elite Clothes in Early Modern England 2003

Book chapter

From the fourteenth to the seventeenth century there were nine major statutes relating to apparel.There were also minor laws passed in 1355, 1364, 1420 and 1477. In addition to this legislative activity, the Commons unsuccessfully petitioned the Crown for sumptuary regulation in 1402 and 1406. Frances Baldwin gives a detailed account of all of this in the first four chapters of Sumptuary Legislation and Personal Regulation in England (Baltimore, 1926). The first appeared in 1337 and prohibited al

Them and Us, He or She?

Susan Vincent

Source: Dressing the Elite. Dressing the Elite Clothes in Early Modern England 2003

Book chapter

A powerful image of exclusion, and of a dangerous marginal lurking on the fringe of decent society, is represented in the figure of the vagabond or wandering rogue. Roaming beyond normal geographic and social boundaries, the rogue embodied the breakdown of good order. Undo the ties that bound family, household and commonweal, and the rogue emerged in dangerous isolation, potentially criminal, but in essence offending simply by existing. ‘Vagrancy is perhaps the classic crime of status, the social

Introduction: ‘When I am in Good Habitt’

Susan Vincent

Source: Dressing the Elite. Dressing the Elite Clothes in Early Modern England 2003

Book chapter

In his diary entry for 8 October 1666, Samuel Pepys recorded the beginnings of a new look. England was at war with France and London reeling from the aftermath of the Great Fire, and so the King intended to create a fashion for clothes that was both anti-French and anti-extravagance. ‘It will be a vest’, wrote Pepys, but ‘I know not well how’. By the following week, however, Pepys had discovered more: This day the King begins to put on his Vest, and I did see several persons of the House of Lords

Nor do not saw the air too much with your hand, thus, but use all gently; for in the very torrent, tempest, and as I may say the whirlwind of your passion, you must acquire and beget a temperance that may give it smoothness. (3.2. 4–7)

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