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1690–1815: Chinoiserie, Indiennerie, Turquerie and Egyptomania

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

See, mademoiselle, how that goes well with your Chinese-style hairstyle, your mantle of peacock feathers, your petticoat of celadon and gold, your cinnamon bottoms and your shoes of jade…

Uniforms as Work Dress for Civilians and Military

Thomas S. Abler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Uniforms are distinctive but standard forms of dress associated with particular occupations and/or social institutions and either supplied or regulated by the associated institution. In donning a uniform one assumes a social role. Since uniforms are often worn in hierarchal institutions, anyone wearing the same uniform can be expected to perform in a similar fashion in a given situation. In initial battles of World War II the soldiers and sailors of the United States wore the British-style steel

Bertin, Rose

Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Marie Antoinette is remembered as a woman preoccupied with fashion. In fact, before she met Bertin, she was not considered particularly well dressed. Bertin was not Marie Antoinette’s only marchande de modes; the task of clothing the queen was far too demanding for just one person, and Bertin had hundreds of other clients to accommodate. But no other marchande de modes enjoyed such easy access to the queen or to the royal purse. Thus, Rose Bertin and Marie Antoinette were inextricably linked in t

Early History of Dress and Fashion in Italy and the Iberian Peninsula

Carmen Alfaro Giner and Maria Giuseppina Muzzarelli

Translated by Ana Alacovska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Rock engravings in Valcamonica, Italy, indicate the use of looms and thus weaving in the second millennium b.c.e. Tunics were worn by both men and women during pre-Roman times in the Iberian Peninsula.Italian regions colonized by Greece in the eighth century b.c.e. were influenced by Hellenic fashion. The Roman royal period lasted from 753 to 509 b.c.e., followed by the republic and the empire. Clothing during the first two periods was largely austere, although wealth and refinement characterized

Romania: Urban Dress, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

Angela Jianu

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Romania in the early twenty-first century encompasses two territorial and political entities that were known as the Romanian (or Danubian) Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia before their unification in 1859 and their transformation into the Kingdom of Romania in 1866. Although the Romanian principalities retained their administration for some time under Ottoman influence, which began in the fourteenth century, in the seventeenth century the Ottoman authorities appointed their own rulers, an

Between East and West—Elite Fashions and Political Change in the Romanian Principalities, 1774–1850

Angela Jianu

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Foreign observers often remarked on the love of luxury among Greek and Romanian nobles at the Phanariot courts of Bucharest and Iasi. Details excepted, female and male figures looked very similar in long, ample vestments. When the Swedish painter Alexander Roslin painted Catherine the Great’s maid of honor, Moldavian Princess Zoe Ghika, in 1777, the sitter may have represented more than a pretty girl in exotic costume. The daughter of a former Phanariot prince of Moldavia, she had joined her fami

Colonial Influence on Dress in the Indian Subcontinent

Donald Clay Johnson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Queen Elizabeth I issued a royal charter to the Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies (commonly known as the East India Company) on the last day of 1600. Thus began the official interactions between England and India, which two centuries later resulted in British political domination of the Indian Subcontinent. What the British wore in India overwhelmingly reflected London fashion rather than incorporating approaches to clothing that had evolved over millennia in India. This

The Textile Industry

Sara J. Kadolph and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Any overview of the textile industry in the United States and Canada will focus primarily on the United States until the latter part of the nineteenth century, as Canada and its textile production were still controlled by Britain until that time. Textile manufacture was one of the first mechanized industries to incorporate outwork production into its manufacturing procedures. An industry of hand-produced lace existed prior to the introduction of English lace machines in Ipswich, Massachusetts, in

French Travelers Writing on Russian Dress

Raisa Marduhovna Kirsanova

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Among many French travelers who described Russia’s native attire were artists, politicians, and historians. The most popular memoirs were those of Louis-Philippe de Ségur (1753–1830), French ambassador to Russia under Catherine the Great. The count stated that in Russia, “red” (krasniy) is equivalent to “beautiful” (krasiviy), because, observing the predominance of red in peasant festive dress, he perceived it as the color of national holidays. Court painter Vigée LeBrun (1755–1842), who emigrate

Acadians

Jenna Tedrick Kuttruff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Louisiana Acadians were originally French peasants who immigrated in the early 1600s to Acadie, the modern Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, bringing their simple dress and methods of production with them to the New World. In 1755, Acadie was surrendered by the French to the English, who subsequently expelled all Acadians who would not submit to the English Crown. Following the ensuing exodus, Acadian exiles sought to preserve their cultural identity by seeking out isolated

Prehistory to Colonialism

Marie-Amy Mbow

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Among the earliest evidence of dress in Africa are shell beads excavated in Morocco, dating back as far as 82,000 years. The oldest known textiles in Africa come from Egypt and Nubia. The Arab conquest of Egypt and the Maghreb began in 640 c.e. Between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries Islamic practice spread, directly influencing dress. Sewn clothing indicated prestige; accounts of certain African kings’ ceremonial clothing in the fourteenth century describe them wearing styles from regions i

Macaroni Dress

Peter McNeil

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Macaroni identity was not a peripheral incident in eighteenth-century culture but a lively topic of debate in the periodical press. Motives for retaining elaborate dress requisite at court but not necessary in the streets of commercial London was various, inflected by the class interests and personal motivations of the wearers. Macaroni status was attributed to such famous figures as the Whig politician Charles James Fox (1749–1806), “the Original Macaroni;" the botanist and South Sea explorer Si

Dance Costumes in French Polynesia

Jane Freeman Moulin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Among the customs French Polynesians perpetuate in the twenty-first century, the public performance of choreographed group dances is one of the most popular and highly enjoyed by local audiences. These may be as a school celebration, a way to acknowledge and greet important visitors, an accompaniment to the large buffets that local residents and visitors enjoy at the tourist hotels, or as part of the yearly music and dance competitions known as Heiva. Viewed as a locus of artistic creativity in t

Early History of Dress and Fashion in Continental West Europe

Mechthild Müller

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The discovery of the Iceman “Oetzi,” who lived between 3500 and 3000 b.c.e., provides valuable information on early dress. His many garments included a patchwork-style goat-fur mantle. Much later, Roman dress included tunics and togas for Roman citizens or friendly allied nations. In 816/817 Charlemagne’s son, Louis the Pious, made monks and members of the clergy accept dress codes. Lay men and women were required to dress differently, and women had to cover their heads in public. Fashion during

Māori and European Dress: Cultural Exchanges in New Zealand

Jennifer Quérée

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

From the late eighteenth century Māori have used dress as one of the means of negotiating and accommodating European culture, especially during the great influx of settlers in the mid- to late nineteenth century. Initially, Māori selectively combined European garments and accessories with their own dress, both as fashionable novelties and as a means of enhancing or gaining social standing. Over a much longer period of time Māori were required to wear European dress by Christian missionaries and e

Early History of Dress and Fashion in Great Britain and Ireland

Naomi E.A. Tarrant

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Little is known about clothing in the British islands before the Roman invasion in 43 c.e.. What survives are cloth fragments and amazing jewelry such as brooches and torcs. Pre-Christian graves suggest that women wore tunics. The advent of Christianity possibly resulted in women covering their heads. The medieval period saw Europe stabilize after the raids and invasions of the Dark Ages. Trade increased greatly, much of it related to textiles. From the fourteenth century onward dress styles have

Czech Urban Dress, Nineteenth Century to 1948

Eva Uchalová

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Czech fashion refers to fashionable clothes created in the Czech lands, that is, Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, that were designed, made, and used by all nations that lived in these territories, the largest of which were the Czechs, Germans, and Jews. In general, Czech fashion was based on the international Western style created in Paris, London, and Vienna, and to a lesser extent in Berlin; the local fashion centers were Prague and, in Moravia, Brno and Olomouc. In the nineteenth century, the cl

Ta’ovala and Kiekie of Tonga

Fanny Wonu Veys

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The wearing of waist wrappings such as t’ovala and kiekie in modern daily life distinguishes Tongan dress from that of its neighboring Pacific archipelagos. Indeed, the basic working dress of civil servants and the school uniforms of students consist of tailored clothing termed vala faka-palangi (foreigners-style clothing), complemented for both sexes by a ta’ovala or for women by a kiekie. Compared to barkcloth production, both ta’ovala and kiekie can be made by a woman on her own, as the materi

Tujia National Minority

Xu Wu

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Mandarin the word tujia means “local people.” However, since 1957, Tujia has also designated one of the 56 ethnic groups formally recognized by the Chinese government. Between 1957 and the 1980s the government granted Tujia identity to everyone whose ancestors had immigrated to southwest and central China before the 1730s. This brought significant confusion to the interpretation of local group identity, as reflected in traditional Tujia dress, which had also been worn by non-Tujia, with people

Lord Chesterfield's Letters to His Son: The Earl of Chesterfield

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

London, November the 8th, O. S. 1750.

Gesture, Ritual, and Social Order in Sixteenth- to Eighteenth-Century Poland

Maria Bogucka

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Both manners and bodily comportment of a nobleman should be grave and full of dignity. Mikolaj Rej, a famous writer of noble origin, wrote in the middle of the seventeenth century:

Eros and Liberty at the English Masquerade, 1710–90

Terry Castle

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Developing Consumerism and the Ready-made Clothing Trade in Britain, 1750–1800

Beverly Lemire

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

The Stationers' Company had obtained a monopoly for the publication of women's almanacs in 1704 and they produced The Ladies' Diary or The Women's Almanack. In 1750, a black and white engraving of a fashionable gown was included at the front of this volume, in response to the interest in fashions evinced by their readers. Pictures of this sort were included in all subsequent editions, depicting styles of full dress, undress, head coverings, bonnets, and accessories. In 1770 the monopoly was succe

Popular Dress

Daniel Roche

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

The garment was bought: I had made my choice; it was noble and modest ….

The Cavaliers and the Parvenus as Imitators of the Court

Werner Sombart

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Nothing has contributed more towards perverting our ideas of probity, candour, and disinterestedness, or turning those virtues into ridicule; nothing has more strengthened that fatal propensity to luxury, which is natural to all men, but which is become with us a second nature, by that peculiarity of temper, which makes us fasten eagerly upon everything that can gratify our passions; and nothing in particular has so greatly degraded the French nobility as the rapid and dazzling fortunes of contra

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