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Tailoring and the Birth of the Published Paper Pattern

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution 2014

Book chapter

Any method more simple or rudimentary than this one published by “A Society of Adepts” can scarcely be conceived. It is really the result of experience and differed scarcely but in name from the plan of cutting by “rock of eye.” It must be regarded as proof that a desire or necessity was felt for some method by which tailors could draft these patterns from measures. In default of any other guide, this work may have been of some assistance to the cutters of that time; otherwise it is remarkable t

Development of Dressmaking Patterns: 1800–1860

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution 2014

Book chapter

Through the eighteenth century, methods for communicating the latest fashions were limited to word of mouth, fashion dolls known as Pandoras, fashion plates such as Galerie des Modes, and publications for professional tailors.

Nineteenth-century Technology

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution 2014

Book chapter

Inventors were experimenting with mechanical sewing by the mid-eighteenth century, but it was not until the mid-nineteenth century that a functioning, practical machine was invented by Barthélemy Thimonnier. In “A Brief History of the Sewing Machine,” Graham Forsdyke explains that Thimonnier’s machine was granted a French patent in 1830. By 1840, he had installed eighty of his machines in his factory for sewing uniforms for the French army. Parisian tailors, who feared the machine would put craft

Introduction

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution 2014

Book chapter

When Western clothing began to reveal the shape of the body in the twelfth century, cloth needed to be cut into shapes and the shapes became more complex in each century, thus requiring guides or patterns to form appropriate shapes to fit the body. The paper pattern ultimately became that guide; however, as Frieda Sorber observed in the exhibition catalog Patterns from the MoMu in Antwerp, “The history of the paper pattern is almost as elusive as the ephemeral nature of the object itself” (Heaven

1690–1815: Chinoiserie, Indiennerie, Turquerie and Egyptomania

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

See, mademoiselle, how that goes well with your Chinese-style hairstyle, your mantle of peacock feathers, your petticoat of celadon and gold, your cinnamon bottoms and your shoes of jade…

An ‘Informalizing Spurt’ in Clothing Regimes: Court Ballet and the Civilizing Process

Norman R. Gabriel

Source: Dressed to Impress. Looking the Part 2011

Book chapter

The aim of this chapter is refine the model of long-term social processes proposed by Elias (1994) in the Civilizing Process by concentrating on one particular development in the early history of ballet, the transition from court to romantic ballet during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in France. According to Carter (1998), dance historiography has suffered from a veneer of glamour, myth and mystery: she argues that the focus on the history of stars and the self-promoting mythologization

Uniforms as Work Dress for Civilians and Military

Thomas S. Abler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Uniforms are distinctive but standard forms of dress associated with particular occupations and/or social institutions and either supplied or regulated by the associated institution. In donning a uniform one assumes a social role. Since uniforms are often worn in hierarchal institutions, anyone wearing the same uniform can be expected to perform in a similar fashion in a given situation. In initial battles of World War II the soldiers and sailors of the United States wore the British-style steel

Missionary Dress in Samoa

Prue Ahrens

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The first European Christian missionaries to establish a station in the South Pacific were members of the London Missionary Society (LMS) who arrived in Tahiti in 1797. Over the next one hundred years a number of European Christian denominations established missions there. For example, mission stations were established in Tonga by Wesleyans (1826) and Marists (1832), and in the Gilberts and Ellice Islands (now Kiribati and Tuvalu) by the LMS (1877) and the Catholic Sacred Heart Mission (1881). In

Uniforms

Nigel Arch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A uniform may be defined as a prescribed set of clothing peculiar to a distinct group of individuals within a society. It is distinguished by displays of hierarchy evident on parts of the dress and will usually also display emblems that act as signals only readily interpreted by other members of the group. Hierarchy is expressed in terms of rank, and badges of rank have appeared on such elements of uniform dress as the shoulder strap and cuffs of the upper body garment. Other symbols act as remin

Fashion Journalism

Kate Nelson Best

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion journalism embraces all kinds of media commentary, but primarily newspaper and magazine articles, about the fashion industry, those who populate the fashion world, and fashion itself. As such, it has commercial, ideological, and symbolic functions that have remained unchanged since the mid-1800s.

Serbia: Ethnic Dress

Jasna Bjeladinović

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In its rich creative textiles, its role in everyday life and in providing ethnic identity, as well as its visual and aesthetic values, ethnic dress is one of the most valuable and beautiful creations of the cultural heritage of the Serbs. Serb ethnic dress is known mostly due to preserved collections of clothing sets from the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth century and is characterized by a great variety of forms, trimmings, ornaments, and colors. Its splendor is obvious

The Wool Industry in Australia

Prudence Black and Anne Farren

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

That the wealth of Australia rode “on the sheep’s back” is a well-known expression. In particular, it has been Merino wool (a thick fine fleece suited to weaving into quality fabric) for the international and increasingly global clothing market that has been Australia’s most significant product. The Merino sheep has been selectively bred for over two hundred years and is recognized worldwide for its uniformly fine and soft fibers. While Australia is home to only a small proportion of the world’s

Ideology and Ethnic Dress in Croatia

Aida Brenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Ethnic dress has been used for ideological and political purposes in Croatia from the mid-nineteenth century up through the early twenty-first century. In the course of history, individual communities have adopted clothes and clothing styles to differentiate themselves from others. Thanks to its distinctive features, dress has acted as an obvious symbol of identity. Only with the appearance of fashion and the acceptance of global fashion tendencies by elite groups from the mid-sixteenth century o

Poland: Ethnic Dress

Anita Broda

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

It is generally considered that peasants’ dress became distinct from that of other classes beginning in the fifteenth century. Dress quickly became a symbol of group values. A phenomenon typical in Polish folk culture was the borrowing of elements from higher classes, seen in folk dress with rich baroque detail. The peak development of folk dress in many parts of Poland occurred in the second half of the nineteenth century and was connected with peasants being granted the freehold of land; festiv

Bertin, Rose

Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Marie Antoinette is remembered as a woman preoccupied with fashion. In fact, before she met Bertin, she was not considered particularly well dressed. Bertin was not Marie Antoinette’s only marchande de modes; the task of clothing the queen was far too demanding for just one person, and Bertin had hundreds of other clients to accommodate. But no other marchande de modes enjoyed such easy access to the queen or to the royal purse. Thus, Rose Bertin and Marie Antoinette were inextricably linked in t

France

Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The French Revolution abolished the rigid dress etiquette and bureaucracy of the ancien régime fashion industry. Napoleon’s campaigns inspired fashions with soldierly details and created a vogue for exotic accessories. His imperial court ensured the survival of French luxury goods industries, while promoting a more modern silhouette. Napoleon encouraged pre-Revolutionary tastes for classical Greek and Roman styles, to glorify his own reign. The restoration of the Bourbon monarchy and the Romantic

Convict Dress in Australia

Julia Clark, Linda Clark, Kim Simpson, Ian Terry and Elspeth Wishart

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Following the American War of Independence, Britain could no longer send convicts there, so one hundred and sixty thousand convicts were transported to the Australian colonies between 1788 and 1868. Their management, including clothing, was an enormous undertaking. Colonial penal authorities aimed to regulate convicts, make them easily identifiable, and classify them within the penal system. However, it was difficult to establish a coherent clothing system. Until the 1820s, convict clothing was o

Swimwear, Surfwear, and the Bronzed Body in Australia

Jennifer Craik

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

For many people, Australia is synonymous with the dream of sun, surf, and sand. Australia is perceived as a land of leisure and lounging around—preferably by the water. In order to do this, Australians dress in a casual way in swimsuits, surfwear, or leisure wear such as tank tops (sleeveless, low-necked tops) or T-shirts, shorts, and thongs (rubber sandals). Sunhats are, of course, obligatory in the Australian climate if skin cancer is to be avoided. Accordingly, popular representations of this

Accessories

Valerie Cumming

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

There is a debate about whether accessories are “essential” or “additional to dress.” From 1800 onwards, there are relatively few new accessories; some gradually disappeared, and others became increasingly important, their roles reflecting a changing world. Many times those actually producing these goods could themselves afford only basic, practical items. Certain crafts were more suited to mechanized production—knitted goods like stockings and printed fabrics—others, like millinery, beaded bags,

Brummell, George (Beau)*

Alison Matthews David

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Nineteenth-Century Medical Views on Dress

Margaret Deppe

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Much attention has been given to the social context of clothing in the past as dress and fashion phenomena are critical indicators concerning the economic, political and ideological components of a given society. In England and North America in the nineteenth century, the tight lacing of ladies’ corsets was a function of clothing fashion as well as a fashion in morality and an indicator of social and economic status. Physicians joined dress reformers in repeatedly issuing warnings against tight l

Zimbabwe

William J. Dewey

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Shona peoples represent the majority of Zimbabwe’s population, followed by the Ndebele and the Tonga; each has its dress traditions. Ancient rock paintings left by the very early San peoples depict male hunters with bows and arrows, the women wearing front and back animal-skin aprons. The Bantu speakers migrating to the region about two thousand years ago left figurines, apparently showing body scarring, but no other figurative evidence of early dress or adornment remains. Excavations have yi

Azerbaijan

Lala Eldarova

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Azerbaijan lies on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, at the southeastern extremity of the mountainous Caucasus region. It has borders with Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, and Turkey. The development of Azerbaijani national dress reached its zenith in the nineteenth century, with the emergence of its own unique style, with many features being common to all parts of the country. The principles, rules, and customs governing its design, cut, and the way it should be worn reflected the unity of th

Settler Dress in Australia

Damayanthie Eluwawalage

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing was a problematic aspect of the social and cultural life of colonial Australia from the time of first settlement in 1788. Apart from military officers and civil officials, much everyday clothing was working-class wear. Yet fashionable dress was soon to become a key aspect of cultural practice, emphasizing the social status and power of the elite and aspirational elite, as well as being a symbolic indicator of class. Status signals were important in this fledgling society made up of dispa

Underwear

Grace Evans

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The fashionable silhouette has gone through bewildering changes during the last two hundred years, and these would not have been possible without the shapes created beneath. Underwear and outerwear progressed in tandem. Underwear designers responded to prevailing styles of fashionable dress, and fashion designers built and relied upon the capabilities of structural underpinnings as they developed. These changes were, in turn, influenced by key social, economic, and technological developments, whi

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