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Chanel and Her Rivals

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Sandwiched between two world wars, between Poiret’s harem and Dior’s New Look, two women dominated the field of haute couture—Schiaparelli and Chanel.

Into the Twentieth Century

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Interviewed in 1903 about their favorite brand of corset, Mme. Réjane said, “pas besoin,” [no need] and Mlle Eve Lavaliére replied, “Je nien porte pas” [I don’t wear one].

The Edwardian Period and World War I 1900–1920

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

From 1900 to 1920, many societal, political, and technological changes occurred that dramatically altered life for many people. Innovations such as the telephone and cable cars and trolleys made communication and travel easier. With enhanced interest and access to college and university education, and increased variety and complexity of jobs, more people needed simpler, easier to acquire clothing. By the beginning of the 20th century, ready-to-wear clothing, offered in a variety of styles, quanti

The Edwardian Period and World War I, 1900–1920

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume. Student Study Guide, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

Shifts and Balances: 1900–1920s

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution, 2014, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

A dynamic new figure entered the pattern enterprise in the first decade of the new century. Condé Nast was adept at promotion and was attracted to the pattern industry. He organized the Home Pattern Company and distributed dress patterns in an arrangement with Ladies’ Home Journal in 1905 (Seebohm 1982: 32). The Ladies’ Home Journal was an influential women’s periodical with a circulation of 1,000,000 (Mott 1938: vol. 4, 545). Nast had remarkable marketing skills and successfully promoted pattern

Class and Gender in A Museum Collection: Female Skiwear

Marianne Larsson

Source: Fashion and Museums. Theory and Practice, 2014, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Urban middle-class women have been active in open-air activities and sports since the end of the nineteenth century. When men could easily wear a used woolen suit, women had to challenge the fashion of corseted waists and full-length skirts, as well as the conventions that excluded them from physical exercise in public and outside. In this study, I want to show how women’s desire for outdoor life has influenced their ski clothing according to new social and cultural patterns. With a focus on fema

1868–1944: The Japoniste Revolution, the Deorientalizing of the Orient and the Birth of Couture

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century, 2013, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Civilization! Read: ‘the era that has lost almost all its creative power…in jewellery as in furniture’; and in one or the other we are compelled to exhume or import. Import what? Indian bracelets of glass filament and Chinese earrings of cut paper? No. But more often the naïve taste that underlies their making.

Highlights in the History of Accessories from Ancient Times to the Present

Aneta Genova

Source: Accessory Design, 2012, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Chapter One traces the history of accessories as they developed in the Western world from ancient Egypt through the twentieth century. After reading this chapter, you will be able to identify and describe features of accessory design throughout history that can inspire your own designs.

Paul Poiret: Classic and New in the Struggle for Designer Mastery

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

In a meditation on the accumulation of symbolic capital in the fields of cultural production, Bourdieu, who views fashion as one among many such fields, explains that the production of time is central to the work of distinguishing the artists: ‘To “make one’s name” (faire date) means making one’s mark, achieving recognition (in both senses) of one’s difference from other producers; at the same time, it means creating a new position beyond the positions presently occupied, ahead of them, in the av

Elsa Schiaparelli: Glamour, Privacy and Timelessness

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The opening lines of Schiaparelli’s 1954 autobiography, Shocking Life, are curious. Referring to herself in the third person, as she does intermittently throughout the text, Schiaparelli writes, ‘I merely know Schiap by hearsay. I have only seen her in a mirror.’ElsaSchiaparelli, Shocking Life (1954; reprint, V&A Publications, 2007), p. vii. Here, with surprising bluntness, she sets herself up as someone who is ‘split’, having a rich inner life characterized by multiple visions of self.For a tho

The Making of an American Icon: The Transformation of Blue Jeans during the Great Depression

Sandra Curtis Comstock

Source: Global Denim, 2011, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

As the chapters in this volume show, at the current conjuncture, an astonishing number of people in a striking number of cultural contexts have come to deploy jeans as a symbol of movement between social worlds and boundary crossing – be it generation, gender, culture, religion or class-inflected boundary crossing. In a world characterized by intensifying exchange and transposable goods, produced by the now ‘virtually universal intersection of (cultural) structures’, blue jeans seem to epitomize

Vionnet, Madeleine*

Rebecca Arnold

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Around 1900 Vionnet moved to Callot Soeurs’s celebrated couture house in Paris. There she began to understand the significance of garment design that sprang from draping fabric directly onto a live model, rather than sketching a design on paper and then translating it into fabric. This approach necessarily focused attention on the body and its relationship to the way fabric was draped and sculpted around its contours. Vionnet exploited this technique to the full. For Vionnet, draping—in her case

Russian Constructivism in Dress and Textiles

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Constructivism was embedded in immense political and social changes brought about by the Bolshevik Revolution. Its appearance in 1919 resulted from the merger of two parallel but very different artistic movements: futurism and proletkult. While futurism rebelled against bourgeois culture and lifestyle in a series of anarchistic practices, proletkult was a politically motivated mass movement that promoted a separate culture for the proletariat. In this context, for the constructivists, fashion was

Early French Fashion Photography

Marie Botkin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The desire to represent nature as it was marked the advent of photography, with as much detail as the lens would permit. Photography in the early 1800s, as Frenchman Louis Daguerre developed it in the daguerreotype, used a technique that lent itself more to the creation of images resembling an eighteenth-century miniature than a photographic image in the twenty-first century. Daguerre did not envision his work in sun printing in the 1830s as a form of self-expression or as a way to circulate the

Jacques-Henri Lartigue

Marie Botkin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

See alsoEarly French Fashion Photography.

Antarctic Explorer Wear

Natalie Cadenhead

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing worn in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica demonstrates important design changes developed to assist wearers with extreme weather conditions. Antarctic clothing history is split into two main eras: the heroic era from 1840 to 1917 and the scientific era from 1940 to the twenty-first century. Exploration that occurred between these eras was mainly sea-based for commercial reasons (sealing and whaling) and did not affect clothing design in any major way. At the beginning of the heroic era o

Fortuny, Mariano

Gillion Carrara

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Fortuny’s garments and textiles fuse history, anthropology, and art. By blending various dyes he achieved luminous, unique colors. Resurrecting the ancient craft of pleating fabric, artistically symbolizing a reflection of the sun’s rays, Fortuny developed his own interpretation of this craft and registered his heated pleating device in 1909. Between 1901 and 1933 he registered twenty-two patents, all of which related to garments and printing methods. Prolific in artistic pursuits, he printed etc

Veblen, Thorstein

Michael Carter

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Veblen argued that a prime function of dress within the leisure class is to display the wearer’s wealth by their consumption “of valuable goods in excess of what is required for physical comfort” (p. 125). According to Veblen the most immediate form of conspicuous consumption is quantity, or the possession of items of clothing (for instance shoes or suits) far beyond the requirements of reasonable daily wear. However, dress in the leisure class is also subject to considerations of quality. Abilit

Flügel, J. C.

Michael Carter

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Flügel makes little use of Freud’s ideas of clothing as either fetish objects or as sexual symbols in dreams. Central to his analysis of clothing is the sociopolitical interpretation he gives to Freud’s model of the human psyche. Freud argues for a three-part division of the mind into id, superego, and ego. The id is the dimension of primitive instinct and the ultimate propelling force of the organism. The superego is an equally primitive inhibitory mechanism that operates as a crude controller o

Delaunay, Sonia

Angel Chang

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Chanel, Gabrielle (Coco)

Amy de la Haye

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Chanel sang during evening concerts at a fashionable café called La Rotonde. It is believed that her rendition of the song “Qui qu’a vu Coco dans le Trocadéro” earned her the nickname “Coco.” Chanel started to mix in fashionable circles when she went to live in 1908 with Étienne Balsan, who bred racehorses on his vast estate at La Croix-Saint-Ouen. Chanel’s astute choice of clothing—her neat tailor-made suits and masculine riding dress—and modest demeanor served to mark her out from the other cou

Patou, Jean

Amy de la Haye

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

In 1914 Patou established a couture house at 7, rue St. Florentin, near the rue de la Paix. Although his first collection was prepared, it was never shown, as he went to serve as a captain in a French Zouave regiment during World War I. Following the cessation of hostilities Patou became a leading international couturier. He commissioned his fellow officer Bernard Boutet de Monvel, who was working for several fashion magazines, to illustrate many of his advertisements. Patou’s salon was decorated

Soviet Underwear

Julia Demidenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Soviet-era underwear—both its manufacturing and consumption—were determined not only by fashion but also, to a great extent, by the ideology and political goals of the state and its economic priorities at different stages. As a result of the revolution of February 1917, underwear became simpler, and its assortment was reduced. Due to the devastation that followed the October Revolution of 1917 and the civil war, people continued to wear prerevolutionary styles of underwear.

Fashion Contests in the Soviet Union

Julia Demidenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

In 1916, the first artistic contest for drawings and designs of contemporary women’s clothing in Russia was held. It was announced by the Union of Russian Women, which was under the patronage of the Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna, and the leading works were published in the journal Damskii Mir (Ladies’ world). The first prize was awarded to Rene O’Connell, a student who was at that time the wife of artist Ivan Bilibin, and the second prize to the artist Ivanitskaia-Panina. Both women presented work

Girdle

Jane Farrell-Beck

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

In the famously unconstrained 1920s, teens and young women, collectively termed flappers, generally abhorred the heavy corsets on which their mothers depended for figure control. Fashionable young women often rolled their stockings and limited underwear to a wispy bandeau and step-in panties. By the mid-1920s, as a contoured silhouette began gradually to return to women’s fashions, flappers and other fashionables accepted garter belts and light girdles. The advertising agency J. Walter Thompson r

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