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Louise Brooks

Elizabeth Glendinning

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Louise Brooks (1906–1985) was the epitome of the 1920s “flapper,” whose iconic look and style reflected the speed and dynamism of modernity, and whose liberated approach to life and her own identity contributed to her often tragic legacy.

Fashion and Surrealism

Victoria Rose Pass

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Surrealism, as an artistic movement, emerged in Paris in 1924 with the publication of the Surrealist Manifesto by the writer André Breton (1896–1966), but artists and writers had exhibited this sensibility long before. The notion of the uncanny is at the heart of surrealism. At its most basic, the aesthetic of the uncanny celebrates the beauty of combining images which are irreconcilable: the real and the imagined, the live and the dead, the organic and the inorganic. The uncanny is also at the c

Suzanne Lenglen

Jaclyn Pyper

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Suzanne Lenglen was a French tennis player and one of the first female celebrity athletes. Born in Paris in 1899, Suzanne developed her skills on the tennis courts of the French Riviera. Soon after her first win at Wimbledon in 1919, she began to be dressed both on and off the court by the up-and-coming couturier Jean Patou. Suzanne would dominate the international women’s tennis circuit in the 1920s, but her celebrity was equally built on her glamorous lifestyle, clothing, and temperamental pers

Blossoming Economy: 1920–1929

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution 2014

Book chapter

While the general economy was experiencing boom years in the period between the end of the First World War and the crash of 1929, not every sewing-related business benefited. Fewer women were making their own clothes or going to custom dressmakers. Since the turn of the century, an increasing number of women had been entering the workplace, and this trend continued after the war. They no longer had the spare time to lavish on making their own clothing, and the ready-made garment industry was offe

1868–1944: The Japoniste Revolution, the Deorientalizing of the Orient and the Birth of Couture

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

Civilization! Read: ‘the era that has lost almost all its creative power…in jewellery as in furniture’; and in one or the other we are compelled to exhume or import. Import what? Indian bracelets of glass filament and Chinese earrings of cut paper? No. But more often the naïve taste that underlies their making.

Paul Poiret: Classic and New in the Struggle for Designer Mastery

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity 2012

Book chapter

In a meditation on the accumulation of symbolic capital in the fields of cultural production, Bourdieu, who views fashion as one among many such fields, explains that the production of time is central to the work of distinguishing the artists: ‘To “make one’s name” (faire date) means making one’s mark, achieving recognition (in both senses) of one’s difference from other producers; at the same time, it means creating a new position beyond the positions presently occupied, ahead of them, in the av

Elsa Schiaparelli: Glamour, Privacy and Timelessness

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity 2012

Book chapter

The opening lines of Schiaparelli’s 1954 autobiography, Shocking Life, are curious. Referring to herself in the third person, as she does intermittently throughout the text, Schiaparelli writes, ‘I merely know Schiap by hearsay. I have only seen her in a mirror.’ElsaSchiaparelli, Shocking Life (1954; reprint, V&A Publications, 2007), p. vii. Here, with surprising bluntness, she sets herself up as someone who is ‘split’, having a rich inner life characterized by multiple visions of self.For a tho

As the chapters in this volume show, at the current conjuncture, an astonishing number of people in a striking number of cultural contexts have come to deploy jeans as a symbol of movement between social worlds and boundary crossing – be it generation, gender, culture, religion or class-inflected boundary crossing. In a world characterized by intensifying exchange and transposable goods, produced by the now ‘virtually universal intersection of (cultural) structures’, blue jeans seem to epitomize

Vionnet, Madeleine*

Rebecca Arnold

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Around 1900 Vionnet moved to Callot Soeurs’s celebrated couture house in Paris. There she began to understand the significance of garment design that sprang from draping fabric directly onto a live model, rather than sketching a design on paper and then translating it into fabric. This approach necessarily focused attention on the body and its relationship to the way fabric was draped and sculpted around its contours. Vionnet exploited this technique to the full. For Vionnet, draping—in her case

Azerbaijan—Urban Dress, the 1920s to the Twenty-First Century

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Azeri (Azerbaijani ethnicity) aristocracy and the nascent bourgeoisie and intelligentsia gradually introduced elements of Western styles into their dress beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, when the region was still part of the Russian tsarist empire. Europeanized dress was one of the elements within a wider discourse that challenged the old way of life and its long-held traditions and proposed modernization in all the fields of society. A new role for women was on the agenda of secular

Russian Constructivism in Dress and Textiles

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Constructivism was embedded in immense political and social changes brought about by the Bolshevik Revolution. Its appearance in 1919 resulted from the merger of two parallel but very different artistic movements: futurism and proletkult. While futurism rebelled against bourgeois culture and lifestyle in a series of anarchistic practices, proletkult was a politically motivated mass movement that promoted a separate culture for the proletariat. In this context, for the constructivists, fashion was

Early French Fashion Photography

Marie Botkin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The desire to represent nature as it was marked the advent of photography, with as much detail as the lens would permit. Photography in the early 1800s, as Frenchman Louis Daguerre developed it in the daguerreotype, used a technique that lent itself more to the creation of images resembling an eighteenth-century miniature than a photographic image in the twenty-first century. Daguerre did not envision his work in sun printing in the 1830s as a form of self-expression or as a way to circulate the

Jacques-Henri Lartigue

Marie Botkin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

See alsoEarly French Fashion Photography.

Dress Reforms of the Early Twentieth Century in Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan

Derek Bryce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the 1920s and 1930s, three states—Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan—embarked on a series of wide-ranging programmatic reforms designed to transform their respective societies fundamentally. Often called “modernization from above” because of their association with authoritarian elites, these reforms attempted to impose changes in state, economic, and sociocultural spheres that favored broadly Western models and to replace or restrict the practice of corresponding traditional, indigenous, or Isl

Fortuny, Mariano

Gillion Carrara

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fortuny’s garments and textiles fuse history, anthropology, and art. By blending various dyes he achieved luminous, unique colors. Resurrecting the ancient craft of pleating fabric, artistically symbolizing a reflection of the sun’s rays, Fortuny developed his own interpretation of this craft and registered his heated pleating device in 1909. Between 1901 and 1933 he registered twenty-two patents, all of which related to garments and printing methods. Prolific in artistic pursuits, he printed etc

Gucci

Gillion Carrara

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Veblen, Thorstein

Michael Carter

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Veblen argued that a prime function of dress within the leisure class is to display the wearer’s wealth by their consumption “of valuable goods in excess of what is required for physical comfort” (p. 125). According to Veblen the most immediate form of conspicuous consumption is quantity, or the possession of items of clothing (for instance shoes or suits) far beyond the requirements of reasonable daily wear. However, dress in the leisure class is also subject to considerations of quality. Abilit

Flügel, J. C.

Michael Carter

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Flügel makes little use of Freud’s ideas of clothing as either fetish objects or as sexual symbols in dreams. Central to his analysis of clothing is the sociopolitical interpretation he gives to Freud’s model of the human psyche. Freud argues for a three-part division of the mind into id, superego, and ego. The id is the dimension of primitive instinct and the ultimate propelling force of the organism. The superego is an equally primitive inhibitory mechanism that operates as a crude controller o

Laver, James

Michael Carter

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Laver was fascinated by the effects that the passing of time has upon people and their works. He was greatly influenced in his theory of time by a notion of zeitgeist, or “time spirit,” a concept taken from nineteenth-century German philosophy. Zeitgeist proposes the existence of a collective psychological, or spiritual, entity that imparts a distinctive pattern of aims and emphases to a culture, nation, or historical epoch. Drawing on this idea of cultural unity, Laver concluded that every aspec

Delaunay, Sonia

Angel Chang

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

James, Charles

Elizabeth Ann Coleman

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Portugal

Paula C. G. da Costa Soares

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Changes in Portuguese dress have closely followed political developments, with the 1974 revolution marking the biggest turning point. During the dictatorship, dress styles were conservative, fashion was class based, and low incomes forced most families to be economical in their consumption of clothes. The 1974 Carnation Revolution led to a revolution in fashion as well, with the emergence of a plethora of informal dress styles that were associated with equality and democracy. In the 1980s and 199

Patou, Jean

Amy de la Haye

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In 1914 Patou established a couture house at 7, rue St. Florentin, near the rue de la Paix. Although his first collection was prepared, it was never shown, as he went to serve as a captain in a French Zouave regiment during World War I. Following the cessation of hostilities Patou became a leading international couturier. He commissioned his fellow officer Bernard Boutet de Monvel, who was working for several fashion magazines, to illustrate many of his advertisements. Patou’s salon was decorated

Chanel, Gabrielle (Coco)

Amy de la Haye

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Chanel sang during evening concerts at a fashionable café called La Rotonde. It is believed that her rendition of the song “Qui qu’a vu Coco dans le Trocadéro” earned her the nickname “Coco.” Chanel started to mix in fashionable circles when she went to live in 1908 with Étienne Balsan, who bred racehorses on his vast estate at La Croix-Saint-Ouen. Chanel’s astute choice of clothing—her neat tailor-made suits and masculine riding dress—and modest demeanor served to mark her out from the other cou

Soviet Underwear

Julia Demidenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Soviet-era underwear—both its manufacturing and consumption—were determined not only by fashion but also, to a great extent, by the ideology and political goals of the state and its economic priorities at different stages. As a result of the revolution of February 1917, underwear became simpler, and its assortment was reduced. Due to the devastation that followed the October Revolution of 1917 and the civil war, people continued to wear prerevolutionary styles of underwear.

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