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Elvis Presley

Fiona Corbridge

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Elvis Presley’s ascent from impoverished childhood to worldwide fame as a singer and actor in the 1950s allowed him to indulge a love of clothes that began as a teenager. A career of over twenty years established a sharp-dressing persona, graduating into extravagant stage attire in the 1970s. The shock of his early death only served to increase the public’s fascination with him and to immortalize him as a cultural icon. Elvis’s handsome image continues to reassert itself in the early twenty-first

Edie Sedgwick

Stephanie Kramer

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

In the canon of fashion tastemakers, Edie Sedgwick remains both a legend and a mystery. In her short twenty-eight years, the Santa Barbara, California native was a socialite, heiress, artist, actress, model, New York scenester, and 1965’s anointed “Girl of the Year.” From her affiliation with Andy Warhol and the artistic community of the Factory to her collaboration with designer Betsey Johnson, to her stints as a model for Vogue, Sedgwick’s contribution to the world of fashion was undoubtedly a

Janis Joplin

Stephanie Kramer

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

As the 1960s became defined by social upheaval, free thinking, and unbridled creative output, perhaps no other female figure embodied the zeitgeist more than singer Janis Joplin. She channeled a profound feeling of alienation into an inimitable performance style, and as her singing career flourished, her fashion style developed into the veritable quintessence of the countercultural look. An amalgam of a diverse range of sources, Joplin’s style was at once boyish yet delicate, earthy yet ethereal,

Greasers

Else Skjold

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

“Greasers” were devotees of a subcultural style originally for young, working-class men (later also women) that emerged in the 1950s in the United States. The word “grease” refers to the wax or pomade used to make the characteristic hairdo of the look, which also typically included biker boots, jeans, T-shirts, and leather jackets. Groupings of greasers would often appear in motorcycle gangs around the emerging rock ’n’ roll scene, and parts of the subculture formed the motorcycle club “Hell’s An

Skinheads

Else Skjold

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

The skinhead style emerged in the 1960s in London as a fusion between “rude boy” style and “mod” style, and is as such a subgenre of the working-class street style that emerged after World War II. The name of the style refers to the characteristic shaved hairdo, which is often associated with racism and violence. But actually, the style is a characteristic example of the bridging between black and white cultures that goes back decades, even hundreds of years, in Western menswear. Stylistically, i

New Challenges: 1960s–1980s

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution 2014

Book chapter

A common misconception is that by the 1960s women stopped sewing and making their own clothes due to the mass of inexpensive, readily available ready-to-wear options. However, the 1960s were actually a boom period. The Barron’s article “Profitable Patterns” (1958) reported that pattern companies were generally profitable, with the exception of Vogue. The parent company, Condé Nast, was publishing several magazines and running the pattern division, which operated at a loss. However, the losses “ar

1944–2011: Postwar Revivalism and Transorientalism

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

To call the toga or the mandarin’s gown ‘chic’ is to suggest a process of change which barely existed in ancient Rome or China; the clothes of the beefeater of the samurai are eminently respectable, precisely because they are not up to date; the tarboosh was never ‘all the go’ for it has never gone.

Introduction to Subcultural Body Style

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

After World War II, subcultures surfaced with prominence in urban spaces within Western culture (Thompson 1998). Scholars speculate that these subcultures formed because of shared issues and common needs that set them apart from mainstream culture and society (Cohen 1955). Over time, the term “subculture” gained negative connotations for four primary reasons. First, the very term “subculture” has a prefix of “sub,” which suggests something lower or below. Second, subculture members often come fro

Subcultural Body Style History

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

From the time we are born, the human body is modified for physical, spiritual, psychological, social, and cultural transformations. In fact, prehistoric mummies found in recent years suggest that body practices, modifications, associated supplements, and rituals were significant in the earliest of human cultures (Winge 2003). In 1991 a frozen Stone Age male mummy was found in the Ötztal Alps. Nicknamed Ötzi, this mummy shows evidence of possibly the earliest body modifications ever discovered. Re

Subcultural Body Style and Identity

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

Each subculture member has individual lived body experiences, which collectively create the generalizations about the subculture’s identity. These generalizations are then further extended to collective ideas about identity regarding the individual member, the specific subculture, and the entirety of all subcultures to some degree. The subcultural body becomes an amalgam of experiences—for example, piercings, tattoos, spiky hair, and propensity toward pain. Furthermore, each subculture has unwrit

Subcultural Body Style

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

While it may seem contrary to the individualistic nature of subcultures, these groups have style guidelines expected by members. Subcultural groups subtly and visually communicate acceptable dress and styles to current and future members, as well as to outsiders and posers (i.e., individuals who purposefully mimic subcultural dress). Accordingly, Ted Polhemus and Lynn Proctor (1978) state: The dress code of a social group prescribes limits, not absolute uniformity. To suggest that social identity

Conclusion: Music, Fashion, Image

Janice Miller

Source: Fashion and Music 2011

Book chapter

The notion of authenticity has been a texture running throughout this book. As I argued in the introduction and in chapters 1 and 2, music stars and their audiences are always reaching for an experience that resonates with the deeper aspects of the self. Thus, the relationship between music performer and audience is rooted in the emotions. This experience is often made all the more powerful because of a variety of aspects of performance, including embodiment. This is despite the fact that to focu

Fans, Music, Clothes and Consumption

Janice Miller

Source: Fashion and Music 2011

Book chapter

For many writers who focus on fandom, this relationship is made manifest in the greater part by the engagement of fans with consumption and consumer culture. Perhaps even more accurately, it is through patterns of consumption that fan identities are marked out and made visible (see for example Sandvoss 2005; Hills 2002; Jenkins 1992; Toynbee 2006). This, therefore, suggests that contemporary notions of fandom may share a link to industrialized economies and thus to the cultures of consumerism whi

Book chapter

Such subtleties can speak volumes. As John Berger (1972) has established, it is at the level of representation that the ‘normal’ position of women is established, controlled and managed, since seeing repeated images which show the same patterns of behaviour come to define our sense of how things ‘should be’. Thus, such images or representations are the way in which we give meaning and order to the world (see Hall 1997). In an analysis which centres on the female nude in the historical trajectory

White Suited Men: Style, Masculinity and the Boyband

Janice Miller

Source: Fashion and Music 2011

Book chapter

Women are traditionally seen to be subject to the power systems of men—passive, whilst men are active; private, while men are public; ‘fashionable [when] men are not’ (Craik 1994: 170). Clearly, then, both genders have been subjected to expected ways of being and modes of behaviour which are undoubtedly different, but equally limiting. The expectations of appropriate gender behaviour may change over time. Yet when such change happens, what is never eradicated is a sense of a clearly demarcated, i

Dressing Your Age: Fashion, the Body and the Ageing Music Star

Janice Miller

Source: Fashion and Music 2011

Book chapter

Whilst, as Patrizia Calefato would argue, the past is always present in music and fashion, with ‘citations, experiences, influences and suggestions from the past’ (2004: 121), it is not a place in which either industry likes to be seen to dwell. As Calefato establishes, music, like fashion, relies on progress—the next big thing—not necessarily entirely new, but with at least an impression of constant movement and development. In music, she argues, ‘each successive generation [is] consciously livi

Clothes and Cultural Identities: Music, Ethnicity and Nation

Janice Miller

Source: Fashion and Music 2011

Book chapter

Martin Stokes contends that music has provided a means by which individuals and communities come to understand themselves in relation to other groups with whom they contrast themselves, thus establishing the ‘difference between’. Therefore, he argues that ‘music is socially meaningful not entirely, but largely because it provides means by which people recognise identities and places and the boundaries which separate them’ (Stokes 1994: 5).

Introduction: Fashion, Identity, Authenticity and Music

Janice Miller

Source: Fashion and Music 2011

Book chapter

One of the challenges for anyone wishing to discuss music is the problem of categorization and organization around ideas of genre; the decision about where to place any music performance within definitions of genre can shape a variety of perceptions about what is expected of it. This, is turn, affects how a range of gestures which make up the whole performance are interpreted and understood. Thus, genres are packages of meaning that have attributed to them traditions, behaviours, forms of present

Diverting Denim: Screening Jeans in Bollywood

Clare M. Wilkinson-Weber

Source: Global Denim 2011

Book chapter

During a research visit to Bombay in 2008, I asked a young costume assistant, as we sat talking in a suburban Bombay coffee house, how often she had sourced jeans for films. She replied: ‘Denim is big in films. Our actors are wearing denim throughout the film. They have to have jeans, unless they are wearing a suit. I cannot think of a film where we haven’t used jeans, even actresses.’

Dress of the Exile: Tibetan

Monisha Ahmed and Susan Vickery

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The most enduring symbol of Tibet’s struggle for freedom is its national flag—a mountain with two snow lions in the foreground and in the background the sun, surrounded by red and blue bands. With the words “Free Tibet” added, it is embroidered onto T-shirts, screen-printed on bags, made into labels for shawls, and knitted into hats and baby sweaters. The design of the flag dates from the seventh century, when various regiments within the Tibetan army had military flags depicting single or paired

Westwood, Vivienne*

Rebecca Arnold

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Azerbaijan—Urban Dress, the 1920s to the Twenty-First Century

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Azeri (Azerbaijani ethnicity) aristocracy and the nascent bourgeoisie and intelligentsia gradually introduced elements of Western styles into their dress beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, when the region was still part of the Russian tsarist empire. Europeanized dress was one of the elements within a wider discourse that challenged the old way of life and its long-held traditions and proposed modernization in all the fields of society. A new role for women was on the agenda of secular

Ukrainian Fashion, the 1940s to 1990s

Tetiana Bobchenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Following the end of World War II, everyday life returned to normal very slowly in Soviet Ukraine. The opening of the Kyiv (the post-Soviet Ukrainian spelling of Kiev) House of Fashion in 1944 was one of the first so-called peacetime miracles. In the beginning, it was just a small workshop, and its staff brought their own irons and sewing machines. A few decades later, it employed five hundred college-educated designers, cutters, tailors, and embroidery artists and occupied a seven-story building

Windsor, Duke and Duchess of

Andrew Bolton

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Duke of Windsor was born Prince Edward of York on 23 June 1894. With the death of his grandfather, King Edward VII in 1910, his father was crowned King George V. Upon his father’s accession, Prince Edward of York became Duke Edward of Cornwall, and on his sixteenth birthday, Prince Edward of Wales.

Antarctic Explorer Wear

Natalie Cadenhead

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing worn in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica demonstrates important design changes developed to assist wearers with extreme weather conditions. Antarctic clothing history is split into two main eras: the heroic era from 1840 to 1917 and the scientific era from 1940 to the twenty-first century. Exploration that occurred between these eras was mainly sea-based for commercial reasons (sealing and whaling) and did not affect clothing design in any major way. At the beginning of the heroic era o

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