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Early History of Pattern Companies: 1860s–1880s

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution 2014

Book chapter

Demorest, the first to mass-produce retail patterns for the home sewer in the United States, took advantage of the expanded postal services selling by mail order as well as in retail outlets. Who the actual designer of the first patterns was is somewhat unclear. Mrs. Margaret Demorest (née Poole) is listed as Mme Demorest in Leslie’s Lady’s Gazette of Fashion in July 1854. However, it is believed that William Jennings Demorest employed Ellen Louise Curtis and her sister Kate from the early 1850s

New Markets and Expansion: 1880s–1900

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution 2014

Book chapter

By 1880, the six major U.S. pattern companies—Demorest, Butterick, McCall, Harper’s Bazar, Taylor, and Domestic—had positioned themselves in the market. Each published a magazine advertising their patterns for the latest fashions for women, a full complement of children’s clothing, undergarments for all, and shirts, trousers, and various other men’s non-tailored garments.

1815–1871: Turkophilia, Afromania and the Indes

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

Yet neither high Egyptian nights nor the black and opulent coffee with cardamom seed nor the frequent literary discussions with the Doctors of the Law nor the venerable muslin turban nor the meals eaten with his fingers made him forget his British reticence, the delicate central solitude of the masters of the earth.

1868–1944: The Japoniste Revolution, the Deorientalizing of the Orient and the Birth of Couture

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

Civilization! Read: ‘the era that has lost almost all its creative power…in jewellery as in furniture’; and in one or the other we are compelled to exhume or import. Import what? Indian bracelets of glass filament and Chinese earrings of cut paper? No. But more often the naïve taste that underlies their making.

Colonialism to Independence

Heather Marie Akou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A colony, also referred to as an overseas possession (a term used by imperial powers in the nineteenth century) or non-self-governing territory (a term used by the United Nations), is essentially a region governed by an external authority. From 1874 to 1957, for example, the present-day nation of Ghana was known as the Gold Coast, a colony ruled by the British Empire. On the African continent, colonies were established through settlement, commercial enterprises, treaties, or sometimes invasion. T

Tweed

Fiona Anderson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Tweed cloth originated in Scotland in the early nineteenth century. At that time, it was only made from woolen yarns in the twill weave. From the 1820s to the present, tweed has been characterized by a huge range of color and weave effects. The main account given for the origins of the name tweed is that it is based on a misreading of the Scottish word tweel or twill (which was the weave characteristic of Scottish woolens at that time) for tweed. By the 1840s, tweed was established as a term used

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ethnic Dress

Svetlana Bajić

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Ethnic dress in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which preserved rather archaic and diversified items of clothing, mostly belonged to the Dinaric type (the dress of western Bosnia and Herzegovina); the central Bosnian type (the dress of the areas around the Bosna River, east of the Drina River, westward through the Lasva River valley up to the town of Travnik, and southward to Mount Ivan); and the Pannonian type (the dress typical of the Posavina area along the right bank of the Sava River and the lower p

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Urban Dress

Svetlana Bajić

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the 1878–1995 period, Bosnia and Herzegovina had to start its statehood, political system, and economy from scratch on several occasions—more often than any other territory in the immediate or surrounding region. Political change and conflicts include the Austro-Hungarian period: 1878–1914; World War I: 1914–1918; Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes and Kingdom of Yugoslavia: 1918–1945; World War II: 1941–1945; Socialist Yugoslavia: 1945–1992; war period: 1992–1995; and the Dayton Accords p

Tea Gown

Anne Bissonnette

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Wilde, Oscar

Christopher Breward

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Belgium

Karlijn Bronselaer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Belgium played a vital role in the industrialization of the European textile industry. Belgian society changed very quickly due to industrialization during the first half of the nineteenth century. From about the 1820s on the fashionable silhouette in West Europe was the hourglass. Although the average Belgian had neither time nor money for fashion, improved production methods and sewing machines made corsets more affordable. Later, the Art Nouveau or Jugendstil movement (ca. 1890–1920), with its

Visual Media and Dress

Stella Bruzzi and Pamela Gibson Church

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Visual media have played an enormous role in the development of fashion in West Europe. Fashion imagery emerged within print journalism, more specifically women’s magazines, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The development of popular cinema in the first half of the twentieth century had a momentous impact on the global fashion industry, especially in the star system, the “tie-in,” and the involvement of both couturiers and ready-to-wear designers in film. From the radical changes of th

Antarctic Explorer Wear

Natalie Cadenhead

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing worn in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica demonstrates important design changes developed to assist wearers with extreme weather conditions. Antarctic clothing history is split into two main eras: the heroic era from 1840 to 1917 and the scientific era from 1940 to the twenty-first century. Exploration that occurred between these eras was mainly sea-based for commercial reasons (sealing and whaling) and did not affect clothing design in any major way. At the beginning of the heroic era o

Body and Beauty

Patrizia Calefato

Translated by Sveva Scaramuzzi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The concept of human “race” was extended for the first time from its meaning of “lineage” or “descent” by Georges Cuvier (1769–1823) who gave it a classificatory, hierarchical meaning. During the nineteenth century, this conception led to racial biology and eugenics. Notwithstanding the researchers’ intentions, the idea of “race” constituted the basis for nineteenth- and twentieth-century racist ideologies. The idea of feminine beauty also evolved in relation to the genesis of racism. Fashion bec

Godey’s Lady’s Book

Colleen R. Callahan

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Bloomer Costume

Colleen R. Callahan

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Our skirts have been robbed of about a foot of their former length, and a pair of loose trousers of the same material as the dress, substituted. These latter extend from the waist to the ankle, and may be gathered into a band & We make our dress the same as usual, except that we wear no bodice, or a very slight one, the waist is loose and easy, and without whalebones & Our skirt is full, and falls a little below the knee.

Veblen, Thorstein

Michael Carter

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Veblen argued that a prime function of dress within the leisure class is to display the wearer’s wealth by their consumption “of valuable goods in excess of what is required for physical comfort” (p. 125). According to Veblen the most immediate form of conspicuous consumption is quantity, or the possession of items of clothing (for instance shoes or suits) far beyond the requirements of reasonable daily wear. However, dress in the leisure class is also subject to considerations of quality. Abilit

Helmet

Beverly Chico

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Prehistoric peoples probably wore woven basketry or hide head protectors; ancient Ethiopians used horse skulls, manes, and tails. Archaeological evidence reveals that rawhide caps and copper helmets, protecting ears and neck nape—with chin straps and padded wool or leather lining—were worn by Sumerian, Babylonian, and Assyrian warriors during the third to first millennia B.C.E. Early Greek helmets were usually bronze hemispherical crowns. The Corinthian version incorporated a movable face mask; t

Convict Dress in Australia

Julia Clark, Linda Clark, Kim Simpson, Ian Terry and Elspeth Wishart

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Following the American War of Independence, Britain could no longer send convicts there, so one hundred and sixty thousand convicts were transported to the Australian colonies between 1788 and 1868. Their management, including clothing, was an enormous undertaking. Colonial penal authorities aimed to regulate convicts, make them easily identifiable, and classify them within the penal system. However, it was difficult to establish a coherent clothing system. Until the 1820s, convict clothing was o

Worth, Charles Frederick

Elizabeth Ann Coleman

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Charles Frederick Worth was uncommonly astute in recognizing that his talents were better directed toward artistic creativity rather than managing a business. Following a period of working in London dry-goods shops, Worth set out for Paris. In 1846 he found a position at the prominent dry-goods and dressmaking firm of Gagelin et Opigez. This position gave Worth the experience that later enabled him to build his own business. At Gagelin he was exposed to the best resources for fabrics and trims, a

The Pattern Industry

Carol Anne Dickson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The pattern industry in the United States and Canada had as its antecedents a number of earlier attempts to simplify the making of garments. The first patterns, made by cloistered monks, consisted of only two pieces. In the thirteenth century, French master tailor Charles Daillac began making his patterns out of thin pieces of wood. In the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, fashion journals began to appear, illustrating and describing the increasingly complex fashions of the times. In

Settler Dress in Australia

Damayanthie Eluwawalage

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing was a problematic aspect of the social and cultural life of colonial Australia from the time of first settlement in 1788. Apart from military officers and civil officials, much everyday clothing was working-class wear. Yet fashionable dress was soon to become a key aspect of cultural practice, emphasizing the social status and power of the elite and aspirational elite, as well as being a symbolic indicator of class. Status signals were important in this fledgling society made up of dispa

Jews in the Melbourne Garment Trade

Anna Epstein

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

For a large part of the twentieth century the garment trade was an important industry in the southern Australian state of Victoria. Since clothing was a big part of the country’s manufacturing, the Jews of the garment trade made a large contribution to Australia’s economy. This multifaceted industry had its own economic and social history, gorgeous products, and camaraderie and color at its heart, Flinders Lane. It gave rise to the individualism, flair, entrepreneurial spirit, and sheer fun that

Health

Jane Farrell-Beck

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In most environments on Earth, clothing provides needed protection from the elements and other hazards. Yet over the past two centuries, dress has been vilified as the source of disease and death or lauded as a device for improving health and physical vigor. Writers have often directed their prescriptions and proscriptions toward women’s dress, but they also critiqued men’s and children’s apparel. An early health concern was problems and solutions connected to microbes and dermatological hazards,

American Immigrants of West European Origin

Judy Zaccagnini Flynn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The dress of North American immigrants from Western Europe is a reflection of the evolution of their sociocultural experience as they went from their homelands to the New World. Immigration has existed from the early times of settlement in North America to the present. Western Europe (defined in 1890 as Italy, Spain, France, Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Austria-Hungry, Switzerland, France, and Luxembourg) provided the largest number of immigrants to the United Sta

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