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Introduction

Ariel Beaujot

Source: Victorian Fashion Accessories 2012

Book chapter

In order to write this book, I had to think about who the middle class were, and what people who identified themselves as “middle class” thought they had in common. These questions, that seem simple at first, turned out to be quite complex. The middle class was a very diverse grouping in the nineteenth century. It was both an economic classification and an imaginary social category. It included people ranging from the ill-paid spinsters, who made a meager salary designing fashionable objects, to

Jewelry of Malaysia

Mohammed Kassim Bin Haji Ali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Beads were one of the earliest forms of manufactured body ornaments worn by indigenous groups in Malaysia. Some beads found in Borneo can be dated to the Metal Age. Earlier glass and stone beads that came from as far away as Egypt and Mesopotamia through bartering have become very valuable and are much sought after in the early twenty-first century; in earlier times they were sometimes used as currency. The ancient tradition remains strong, and status and wealth are measured according to the numb

Wigs

Caroline Cox

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The earliest Egyptian wigs (c. 2700 B.C.E.) were constructed of human hair, but cheaper substitutes such as palm leaf fibers and wool were more widely used. They denoted rank, social status, and religious piety and were used as protection against the sun while keeping the head free from vermin. Up until the 1500s, hair tended to be dressed as a foundation for headdresses, but by the end of the century hairstyles became higher and more elaborate constructions in which quantities of false hair were

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Aboriginal Dress in North Queensland, Australia

Kate Khan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although there had been occasional contact between Europeans and Aboriginal people in north Queensland since 1606, by the 1860s the increasing influx of Europeans and Chinese occupying Aboriginal lands made conflict inevitable. Until the 1870s tribal groups living in the rain forest region of Cape York Peninsula, north Queensland, escaped the upheavals of foreign contact and continued to lead the life of successful hunter-gatherers in this rich natural environment. Many items were unique to the r

Jewelry

Kristyne Loughran

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The jewelry of the African continent is diverse, ornate, and creative. Part of dress practices, adorning the person is a holistic endeavor. Jewelry is not solely worn for the purpose of adornment; it is an important social marker and carries multivalent and complex meanings within each group. Jewelry is a commodity, a visible sign of wealth, and also reflects cultural attitudes toward dress systems. It reveals both aesthetic criteria and values and cultural norms and ideals, and it exhibits the i

Bilas: Dressing the Body in Papua New Guinea

Michael Mel

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Papua New Guinea is a nation of some six million people in the twenty-first century and lies at the western end of the Pacific Ocean, north of Australia. It is the eastern half of the whole island of New Guinea, which is the second-largest island in the world after Greenland. It gained political independence from Australia in 1975. The nation has always both intrigued and fascinated people with one unusual factor: There are over eight hundred distinct languages spoken. This is an indication of th

Early History of Dress and Fashion in Continental West Europe

Mechthild Müller

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The discovery of the Iceman “Oetzi,” who lived between 3500 and 3000 b.c.e., provides valuable information on early dress. His many garments included a patchwork-style goat-fur mantle. Much later, Roman dress included tunics and togas for Roman citizens or friendly allied nations. In 816/817 Charlemagne’s son, Louis the Pious, made monks and members of the clergy accept dress codes. Lay men and women were required to dress differently, and women had to cover their heads in public. Fashion during

Fang of Equatorial Guinea and Gabon

Louis P. Perrois

Translated by Francine Farr

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Fang of equatorial Africa dazzled all who crossed their path of east-to-west migration toward the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Guinea that ended in the early twentieth century. In 1843, U.S. pastor John Wilson noted, as quoted inMerlet’sLe pays des trois estuaires, 1471–1900, that they were “naked except for a bark loincloth …. Their hair hangs in braids. They carry knives, spears, and many iron objects they make themselves.” In 1847, French naval lieutenant Méquet, plying the Como River on the

Angola

Manuel Jordán Pérez

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Angola is situated on the Atlantic Ocean and is bordered by the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, and Namibia. Most of the original Khosian speakers were displaced by migrations of Bantu in ancient times. Some Khosians remain in Southern Angola, living as hunter-gatherers or working for Bantu pastoralists. Their dress draws on available resources such as ostrich eggshell beads and goatskins, with varied styles reflecting the wearers’ affiliations. A former Portuguese colony, Angola has suffer

Head, Edith

Clare Sauro

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Artificial Hair Additions

Shari Sims

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Whether to change hair’s texture, length, add color or fabulously fake ornamentation, hair extensions have become incredibly popular in the early 21st century, leading to hair (and feather) shortages, price wars, celebrity endorsements, and even thefts. The process of hair extension, though, actually has an impressive history--and a wide range of options from permanent to temporary. This article will explore the hair fashion’s new popularity as well as the techniques, tools, fashion and star styl

Head and Neck

Susan J. Vincent

Source: The Anatomy of Fashion. Dressing the Body from the Renaissance to Today 2009

Book chapter

1663. Two years after Charles II’s triumphant return as the English monarch, the unspeakable horror of the plague yet two years in the future with the Great Fire to come after that, and Samuel Pepys was facing a personal dilemma. He wanted to try wearing a wig, but lacked the resolution to cut off his hair. While two years earlier he had been very particular about how it was trimmed, ‘finding that the length of it doth become me very much’, by May 1663 he was experiencing such difficulty keeping

Fashionable Hair in the Eighteenth Century: Theatricality and Display

Louisa Cross

Source: Hair. Styling, Culture and Fashion 2008

Book chapter

In the eighteenth century, it was not enough just to be seen to be conspicuously in fashion, it was important to be seen to be fashionable in spectacular style. Changing or accessorizing hairstyles was a more economical way of keeping in the fashion than buying material to make up new items of clothing. For women, this brought about great fluctuation in the heights and variety of hair dressing and its display. There were some high styles at the beginning of the century such as the ‘fontange’ wher

Hair and Fashioned Femininity in Two Nineteenth-Century Novels

Royce Mahawatte

Source: Hair. Styling, Culture and Fashion 2008

Book chapter

Women’s hair has a particular resonance when it is considered as a part of the body. Joanne Entwistle’s idea that fashion operates as a ‘situated bodily practice’ applies, with some adjustment, to hair as well: ‘our experience of the body’ she writes, ‘is not as an inert object but the envelope of our being, the site for our articulation of self’ (Entwistle 2001: 45–6). Arguably, this articulation of self is even more suggestive in hair than it is in dress. Its meaning is affected by the way it i

Central American Headwear

Beverly Chico

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Central America includes seven countries: Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. A tropical jungle covers eastern sections of Honduras and Nicaragua along the “Mosquito Coast.” Geography has influenced the development of clothing and headwear in this region. After the Spanish arrived in the 1500s, Europeans began dominating local inhabitants, using them as miners, farm laborers, or for maritime trade. Slaves were also transported from Africa and the West Indi

Fashioning Independence: Gender, Dress and Social Space in Postcolonial Argentina

Regina A. Root

Source: The Latin American Fashion Reader 2005

Book chapter

We can trace the evolution of the European hair comb into an elaborate and enlarged peinetón to the move for independence from Spain. The Spanish brought the first hair combs to Argentina in the eighteenth century. By the nineteenth century, Argentines looked to the fashions of France in an attempt to distance themselves from the customs they shared with the Spanish.For more on this theory, see López and Botalla (1983). The romantic rebellion in Europe had brought about several changes in fashion

The Shuar and Achuar of Ecuador and Peru

Nancy B. Rosoff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Shuar and Achuar groups of Ecuador’s eastern Amazonian lowlands made and wore dazzling ornaments that stood out in contrast to the monochrome world of the jungle. The sonorous environment of the forests was enhanced by the tinkling and rhythmic sounds of seed and cut-shell necklaces and belts worn by men and women during dances. Prior to the introduction of trade goods, agricultural gardens and the surrounding forests furnished all the mat

Women’s Hair Sashes of Mesoamerica

Carol Ventura

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

From pre-Hispanic times through the present, traditionally attired Mesoamerican women have not cut their hair. The hair sash that is wrapped around or interlaced through their flowing locks is often elaborate and symbolic. The methods of wearing hair sashes (also known as headbands, or cintas in Spanish) and their width, length (sometimes more than 20 yards long), fiber, texture, color, and decorations vary through time and from town to town. In fact, the styles of this essential accessory are so

1910

Steven Zdatny (ed)

Source: Hairstyles and Fashion. A Hairdresser’s History of Paris, 1910–1920 1999

Book chapter

It will, I imagine, be generally conceded that Marcel waving constitutes for the ladies’ hairdresser a great Trade improvement – an excellent means of enhancing the appearance of the human hair and of the feminine headdress. From the point of view of the public, Marcel waving is indisputably an important element in the ladies’ toilet. Consequently, it will not – it cannot – disappear. But its great popularity, which was described, and not without reason, as bordering almost on a craze, undoubtedl

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