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Islamic Style

Magdalena Crăciun

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Fashion designers have found inspiration in past and present sartorial repertoires. Islamically appropriate forms of covered dress have aesthetically been drawn upon as well. Consequently, headscarves, face veils and head-to-toe outerwear have occasionally appeared on the catwalk. Fashion commentators have pointed out that such creations and assemblages referenced ethic, traditional, historical, exotic or oriental dress, and only rarely labelled their source of inspiration as Islamic style. The n

Phillip Treacy, Spring/Summer 1999–2000

Victoria Rose Pass

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Milliner Phillip Treacy’s show for London’s spring/summer fashion week on 22 February 1999 played with anthropomorphic shapes that obscured the head and face. While a few designs had their basis in top hats, or fedoras, many more were based on entirely novel forms, from dinner plates to Alexander Calder mobiles. Models such as Grace Jones, Naomi Campbell, and Alek Wek walked with glittering makeup painted over one half of their face, obscuring recognizable features when the lights of the catwalk

Miss Headscarf: Islamic Fashion and the Danish Media

Connie Carøe Christiansen

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

Whilst cultural commentators tended to downplay the aesthetic potential of the headscarf, contestants were generally more sensitive to its potential both as an item of fashion and self-cultivation. They were also conscious of the need to challenge perceptions of Muslim women through their appearance. In several of the Danish newspaper articles which featured the contest, young Muslim women in Denmark were given the opportunity to speak and to present another angle on the headscarf to that usually

Transnational Networks of Veiling-fashion between Turkey and Western Europe

Banu Gökarıksel and Anna Secor

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

The Turkish veiling-fashion industry, while paralleling many of the broader trends in apparel production in Turkey, nonetheless has a unique profile. In the autumn of 2008, we conducted a detailed survey with 174 veiling-fashion firms (that is, firms with 10 per cent or more of their production in Islamic dress for women), which we identified through the membership lists of textile associations, advertising and industry fairs. We estimate that there are a total of 200 to 225 such firms in the cou

Mediating Islamic Looks

Degla Salim

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

The field of fashion is an industry of images (McRobbie 1998: 172). Imagery dominates the industry to such a degree that the distinction between what is really being sold, the garment or the image of the garment, has become increasingly blurry (cf. Baudrillard 1975).The image of the garment is here referred to in a double sense. Image is meant to be regarded as both a consumable photograph of the clothes and as a social ‘image’, an aura that the garment carries. When it comes to understanding the

Azerbaijan—Urban Dress, the 1920s to the Twenty-First Century

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Azeri (Azerbaijani ethnicity) aristocracy and the nascent bourgeoisie and intelligentsia gradually introduced elements of Western styles into their dress beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, when the region was still part of the Russian tsarist empire. Europeanized dress was one of the elements within a wider discourse that challenged the old way of life and its long-held traditions and proposed modernization in all the fields of society. A new role for women was on the agenda of secular

Dress in Egypt in the Twentieth Century

Betty Wass El-Wakil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Egypt has been ruled by foreign powers seeking to control its resources for much of the country’s history. The governing powers throughout history represented the elite, who served as a major influence on styles and fashions in clothing and dress. From the late eighteenth century onward, the French and the British had been attempting to displace the Turkish Ottoman rulers (1517–1798) and gain control over Egypt. The French under Napoleon invaded and occupied Egypt from 1798 to 1805. The Ottoman s

Iranian Headwear in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries

Mary H. Farahnakian

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

From a Western perspective, exotic Iranian headwear of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries has been largely unknown to people around the world because of the lack of scholarly research on the topic. Additionally, few comparisons of Iranian headwear with that of other countries, particularly those in the Middle East, have been published. Where did the distinctive Iranian headwear originate? What influenced its development? Who developed its unique and divergent styles? This article addresses

Early History of Dress and Fashion in Italy and the Iberian Peninsula

Carmen Alfaro Giner and Maria Giuseppina Muzzarelli

Translated by Ana Alacovska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Rock engravings in Valcamonica, Italy, indicate the use of looms and thus weaving in the second millennium b.c.e. Tunics were worn by both men and women during pre-Roman times in the Iberian Peninsula.Italian regions colonized by Greece in the eighth century b.c.e. were influenced by Hellenic fashion. The Roman royal period lasted from 753 to 509 b.c.e., followed by the republic and the empire. Clothing during the first two periods was largely austere, although wealth and refinement characterized

Islam and Islamically Correct Dress (Hijab)

Fadwa El Guindi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As a term and dress form, Islamic dress came into common usage in the mid-1970s, when college youth in urban centers of Egypt began to appear in what they called Islamic dress, a practice that gradually spread internally in Egypt across cities and social strata, and elsewhere in the Arab and Islamic world. The manifestation of the emergent Islamic movement in the form of a new type of dress and associated comportment among male and female college youth took society and even the religious authorit

Ceremonial and Religious Dress in Australia

Lynne Hume

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

While indigenous Australians have occupied the continent of Australia for over forty thousand years, the British, including convicts, only began arriving in 1788 on the First Fleet, and Christian clergy arrived with them. Religion, customs, and dress of Europeans in those early years of colonization were based on the motherland of Great Britain, the settlers being largely monocultural. Since then Australian ceremonial and religious dress has been characterized by considerable diversity, and in th

Dress and Religious Practices

Lynne Hume

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Religious dress visually communicates to observers that the wearer believes in a certain set of religious principles and practices. The status distinctions that exist within any group are also visibly conveyed by dress, which sometimes articulates nuances in the power structure markedly. At the same time, a religious group’s ideology may emphasize simplicity and humility, with these aspects reflected in their choice of clothing.

Yemeni Dress

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Yemen has four main regions: Tihamah (an arid and flat coastal plain in the southwest), the western highlands (which boast diverse agriculture), the eastern highlands, and the Rub’ Al Khali, which means “the Empty Quarter.” This lies to the north and is the world’s largest sand desert, with summer temperatures of over 130 degrees Fahrenheit (54 degrees Celsius). Bab El-Mandeb, the southwestern coastal strait, links the Red Sea with the Indian Ocean and was an important trade corridor for three th

The Abayeh in Qatar

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The abayeh is a contemporary long cloaklike garment worn by most Qatari women outside the home. The wearing of the abayeh and the shayla, the head covering, is not legally enforced, and both garments can be modified and decorated by the individual. While many own and wear Western dress at home, abayehs are willingly retained as a sign of respect for the woman’s culture, heritage, family honor, and gendered place in society. Most Qatari females adopt the abayeh and shayla at the onset of puberty.

Politics and Dress: Women’s Religious Head Covers

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

At first glance, politics and dress seem to be strange bedfellows. On closer study, however, it becomes clear that a wide variety of agendas are enacted through the medium of cloth and clothing, and none are more heated than debates on women’s head covers. Abraham Maslow situated clothing on the bottom tier of his hierarchy of needs based on the physiological requirements of people of all cultures from time immemorial. Throughout history examples abound from most countries of how humans have parl

The Virgin Mary and the Veil

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As much as the veil is fabric or an article of clothing, it is also a concept. It can be illusion, vanity, artifice, deception, liberation, imprisonment, euphemism, divination, concealment, hallucination, depression, eloquent silence, holiness, the ethers beyond consciousness, the hidden hundredth name of God, the final passage into death, even the biblical apocalypse, the lifting of God’s veil, signaling so-called end times. When veiling is forced—then en-forced—it is repression. Yet, as we see

Muslim Dress and the Head-Scarf Debate

Annelies Moors

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Debates about the presence of students wearing head scarves in public schools in West Europe started in the late 1980s; about a decade later, the employment of women wearing head scarves also became the focus of attention. These debates need to be seen within a context in which a new generation of Muslims (often second-generation migrants) started to enter the educational system and then the labor market. As new Muslim citizens, these young men and women have increasingly become socially and poli

Hussein Chalayan: Controversial Fashion Designer or Bridge between East and West?

Bradley Quinn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Artist, filmmaker, architect, designer: descriptions like these are often attached to Hussein Chalayan, a fashion designer and self-styled “ideas person” who forges unexpected alliances between garments, environments, imagery, and technology. Chalayan frequently brokers significant connections between fashion and other creative disciplines. As Chalayan builds bridges between the visual, the ideological, the invisible, and the tangible, his designs challenge preconceived notions of what clothing c

Veils and the Hajj

Elisha P. Renne

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Veils have historically been associated with women’s performance of hajj (the pilgrimage to Mecca) in Saudi Arabia, as documented in the travel narratives of attending pilgrims. While pilgrimage to Mecca prior to the mid-twentieth century entailed extended, sometimes lifelong, travel over land and by sea, airplanes have allowed many more Muslim men and women from around the world to perform hajj since the 1950s.This increase has exposed Muslim women to many different styles of veils worn in count

Hijab Fashions in Northern Nigeria

Elisha P. Renne

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Introduction

Emma Tarlo

Source: Visibly Muslim. Fashion, Politics, Faith 4th Edition 2010

Book chapter

The topic of Muslim women’s appearances is by no means a blank canvas. Rather, it has the quality of a familiar painting, so often reproduced that representation gets confused for reality and we fail to see what might have been left out of the picture or how things could have been painted differently. Representations of Muslim women are dominated by one single all-consuming image, word and concept—the veil. This word which does not correspond directly to any clear-cut Arabic or Islamic category,F

Covering Concerns

Emma Tarlo

Source: Visibly Muslim. Fashion, Politics, Faith 4th Edition 2010

Book chapter

Russell Square tube station, 9.30 a.m., June 2007. A robed figure steps into the tube train. She is wearing a long free-flowing black abaya which sweeps from her shoulders to the floor. Her head is bound with a tight black headscarf, her face covered with a black face veil (niqab), tied at the back. Her eyes briefly scan her surroundings through the narrow slit of her niqab. She carries a large and noticeably stylish grey bag containing books and a file. She is probably a student. A middle-aged m

Reza Shah’s Dress Reforms in Iran

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Some of the most enduring and controversial legacies of the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi, the shah of Iran from 1925 to 1941, were the changes he made in the dress of both men and women living in Iran. The repercussions of these changes can still be felt in the early twenty-first century.

Islamic Pilgrimage Dress (Ihram)

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Once a year, up to two million Muslims descend on the Holy City of Mecca, in Saudi Arabia, as part of the hajj, or pilgrimage. On entering Mecca, the pilgrims are said to be dressed in ihram. “Dressed in ihram” describes a pilgrim’s state of mind, body, and spiritual purity while participating in the hajj, as well as the actual clothing worn by the pilgrims while they carry out the various rituals of the hajj.

Face Veils

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A face veil is a separate garment that is used to cover all or part of the face, usually that of a woman. Ethnic and cultural origins often play a prominent role in whether a woman wears a face veil, and what type. Some groups have insisted on women being veiled because their presence is a sexual distraction to men. Veiling is also used to indicate the physical status of a female, that is, to show if she is in the fertile phase of her life. In patriarchal societies, veiling is sometimes linked to

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