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Manolo Blahnik

Rio Ali

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Romeo Gigli

Rio Ali

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Hip-Hop

Shayla Corinne Black

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Hip-hop is a multifaceted genre of twentieth-century music, whose influence has expanded from the streets to the runway. It is a global phenomenon embraced by millions. Hip-hop began in the Bronx, New York and was forged by black youth as a form of artistic expression. Groups like Run-D.M.C. were iconic with their trademarks: Adidas sneakers, tracksuits, bucket hats, and gold rope chains. The fashion world avidly participated by appropriating the bright colors, athletic wear, loose-fitting garmen

Carmen Miranda

Fiona Corbridge

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Carmen Miranda was born in Portugal but grew up in Rio de Janeiro and considered herself a Brazilian. Her love of singing led to a career as a musical star in Brazil, going on conquer the US in 1939. Her cheery, colorful persona wiggled through a succession of Hollywood movies in extraordinary costumes that celebrated the color and passion of Brazil and its music, accented with Carmen’s trademark headpieces. Her influence on fashion in her lifetime was strong, with ranges of clothing, jewelry, sh

Vivienne Westwood’s Elevated Ghillie Shoes from 1993

Hayley-Jane Edwards-Dujardin

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

For her fall/winter 1993–1994 “Anglomania” collection, Vivienne Westwood perched her models on extremely elevated platform shoes. Inspired, as most of her collection, by Scottish traditional garments, the platform shoes reinterpreted ancestral ghillies worn for folkloric dances. However, apart from the lacing structure, the shoes were more reminiscent of fetish footwear—an aesthetic typical of Vivienne Westwood’s taste for combining conservatism with subversiveness. When the British designer rein

Chanel Haute Couture, Karl Lagerfeld, Fall/Winter 1985

Michelle Honig

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

This collection continued the development of Lagerfeld’s Chanel. Beaded looks were made to look like intricate tapestries and the hems of skirts were either floor-length or well above the knee, a deviation from Chanel’s strict rule of creating skirts 2 in. (5 cm) below the knee, no matter the fashion. The final bridal look was a white satin miniskirt suit. Two-tone, matronly pumps were a Chanel signature; the black stilettos in the collection underscored the younger, sexier direction of the house

Red or Dead

Elizabeth Kutesko

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Gucci

Vanessa Semmens

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Salvatore Ferragamo

Daphne Stylianou

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Shoes, Men’s

Fiona Anderson

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The rise of France as an international fashion center under Louis XIV (1643–1715) promoted the popularity of French court styles. Shoes were adorned with decorative buckles, a style that remained highly fashionable until the 1780s. Buckles were bought as separate items and by the late eighteenth century they were available for all tastes and pockets, from sparkling precious stones for the wealthy, to plain steel, brass, and pinchbeck for the lower orders.

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Heroin Chic

Rebecca Arnold

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

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Children’s Clothing

Colleen R. Callahan

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Beaded and Embroidered Accessories of the Peranakan Chinese

Hwei-Fe’n Cheah

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Peranakan Chinese in insular Southeast Asia trace their ancestry to Chinese migrants who settled in the Indonesian archipelago and Malay peninsula beginning around the seventeenth century. Peranakan Chinese culture is a mix of Chinese and local elements. As Dutch and British colonial rules were reinforced in the Netherlands Indies and Malay Peninsula, European ideas significantly influenced Peranakan Chinese society in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The geographically dispersed

American Women’s Fashions 1970–1979

Daniel Delis Hill

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The 1970s was an era of striking contrasts in women’s fashions. In the early 1970s, the thigh-high miniskirt dominated, but by the end of the decade, most hemlines were well below the knee, some sweeping the ankles. The polyester double-knit pantsuit and platform shoes were favored by career women of the early 1970s, but a few years later, natural fibers and designer logos of the layered look prevailed in corporate offices. Sexualized styles such as hot pants and snug, hiphugger bell-bottoms were

Azerbaijan

Lala Eldarova

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Azerbaijan lies on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, at the southeastern extremity of the mountainous Caucasus region. It has borders with Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, and Turkey. The development of Azerbaijani national dress reached its zenith in the nineteenth century, with the emergence of its own unique style, with many features being common to all parts of the country. The principles, rules, and customs governing its design, cut, and the way it should be worn reflected the unity of th

South Asian Footwear: History, Tradition, and Contemporary Trends

Jutta Jain-Neubauer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

It was, and still is, a common practice to walk barefoot in rural India, a frequent form of adornment being anklets. Traditionally, shoes were worn for protection against severe climatic or topographic conditions. That the aristocracy may have developed a taste for footwear in the early centuries c.e. is evident from sculptural representations. It is conceivable that the various styles of footwear evolved through a fusion of indigenous traditions with Greco-Roman and Kushan influences. The use of

Ukraine

Natalie Kononenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Ukraine is an ancient land of great natural resources that has supported human habitation since prehistoric times. Yet it has existed as an independent state only since 1991. Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus all developed from Rus’, a conglomeration of city-states headed by Kyiv (the Ukrainian spelling of the city otherwise known as Kiev), the capital of modern Ukraine. This state, which is often referred to as Kyivan Rus’, flourished in the tenth to twelfth centuries. After the collapse of Rus’ the

Evidence about Dress of Indigenous People: United States Territory

Jenna Tedrick Kuttruff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

American archaeology focuses, as does archaeology in other parts of the world, on the study of the human past by excavating and analyzing the material remains and monuments of past cultures and the contexts in which they are found. Archaeological findings and interpretations can be combined with information found in historical accounts to enhance the study of dress of North American Indian peoples not only at the times of early European contact but also prehistorically. Archaeology has provided e

Competitive Ballroom Dance

Jonathan S. Marion

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Competitive ballroom costuming facilitates and maximizes the artistic and expressive impact of competitors’ dancing. It is meant to accentuate the movements of dancers’ performances and enhance the artistic images being produced. Artistic costume on the one hand, ballroom dress serves simultaneously as functional athletic wear that must stand up to the physical rigors and stresses involved in the tremendous movement and motion competitors produce. Balancing art and athletics, and in line with spe

Italy

Elisabetta Merlo and Francesca Polese

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

If we use the expression Italian fashion to indicate the production of garments and accessories that are marked by distinctive and unique features universally associated with Italian culture and identity, then such a phenomenon appears only well after the political unification of the country (1861) and indeed is barely discernible prior to World War II. Moreover, even once the creations of Italian couturiers became celebrated in international markets beginning in the 1950s, Italy’s fashion scene

Montenegro

Zorica Mrvaljevic

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The establishment of the Slavic state known as Doclea (later Zeta) led to the development of an original cultural heritage within the area of present-day Montenegro. The cultural self-awareness became so strong that for the centuries that followed, it enabled effective resistance to the Ottoman Empire, which strove to conquer and assimilate the territory. Immediately before the Ottomans prevailed in the late fifteenth century, the territory was ruled by the Crnojevic dynasty, recognized and suppo

Footwear

Giorgio Riello

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The importance of shoes in twenty-first-century Western society extends well beyond their functional use. Through their material appearance—their texture, weight, and design—shoes express abstract ideas that range from sexual appeal to allure, smartness, and informality. Shoes, therefore, are not just accessories that decorate the body or allow people to embrace the latest fashion; they convey messages that are understood across society. High heels stand for exaggerated femininity; red shoes for

Footwear

Doran H. Ross

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In discussions of dress in Africa, soled footwear is generally considered only as an afterthought, and the barefoot stereotype still pervades popular thinking about Africa. Feet, however, are conceptually dressed and framed in many of the same ways as hands and head. And much like the adornment of other parts of the body in Africa, elaborate forms of footwear were and are generally reserved for wealthier segments of society, although distinctions based on gender, age, vocation, and religion are a

Shoes and Shoemaking

Elizabeth Semmelhack

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Shoemaking in North America dates back to the establishment of the very first colonies. It was one of the trades that the Virginia Company hoped to establish in Jamestown, and one of the early investors in the Virginia Company was the Worshipful Company of Cordwainers, the shoemakers’ guild in London. The first mention of shoemakers, or cordwainers as they were known (a term derived from their work with Cordova leather) dates to 1610. Archaeological evidence from Jamestown suggests that the Engli

Footwear

Elizabeth Semmelhack

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Traditional footwear in Asia is diverse and reflects historical and cultural developments across this vast region. While most footwear has its origins in the particulars of daily life, such as the rigid-soled boots for northern horse riders using stirrups or rough plaited straw sandals that gave farmers extra traction on wet or slippery surfaces, throughout most societies, decisions about wearing or not wearing footwear, or when to wear it, were determined by other factors, including custom, soci

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