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Kurt Cobain

José Blanco F.

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Kurt Cobain, the lead singer of Nirvana, was born on 20 February 1967 in Aberdeen in the state of Washington. He became the salient figure in grunge music, a style that developed in the Pacific Northwest of the United States in the middle of the 1980s and achieved global popularity in the early 1990s. Grunge is a style of alternative rock based on accented percussion, heavy electric guitar riffs, electronic distortion, and loud—often howling—vocals. Nirvana, formed in 1988, became one of the most

Katharine Hamnett

Amber Jane Butchart

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Breton Stripe Shirt, Jean Paul Gaultier, 1997

Lorynn Divita

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Throughout Jean Paul Gaultier’s career he has created a recognizable body of work based on iconic looks including trench coats, corsets, and berets, among others. But first and foremost, Gaultier has come to be permanently associated with the Breton stripe top, also known as la marinière, or a “sailor” top. From its origins as a staple of the sailor’s uniform in the Bretagne region of France, then in the entire French navy, the shirt has retained an aura of romance and simplicity that has appeale

“58% Don’t Want Pershing” T-Shirt, Katherine Hamnett, 1984

Jessica Draper

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Fashion designer Katherine Hamnett has cleverly employed fashion as a vessel to carry a political message from early in her career, including the infamous T-shirt “58% Don’t Want Pershing,” in which she was photographed meeting the British prime minister, Margaret Thatcher, in 1984. Concealing the shirt under a jacket and revealing it at the last moment was a masterstroke of publicity, both for Hamnett’s brand and her wider concerns. Hamnett has continued her political activism through her fashio

Vivienne Westwood, “Anglomania,” Fall/Winter 1993–1994

Hayley-Jane Edwards-Dujardin

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

From being queen of punk in the mid-1970s, Vivienne Westwood slightly moved, from the 1980s, to being a supporter of British fashion’s establishment. Inspired by traditional craftsmanship and eighteenth-century art, the designer has since infused her collections with historicism. With her fall/winter 1993–1994 “Anglomania” show, Vivienne Westwood epitomized her interest in English and Scottish traditions while mingling masculine tailoring with outrageously feminine forms. Featuring laced bodices,

Margaret Howell

Elizabeth Glendinning

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Marlon Brando

Stephanie Kramer

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

The white T-shirt, the biker jacket, jeans: these three items have become so ingrained in menswear’s fashion lexicon that it is almost difficult to conceive the relative newness of these classic wardrobe staples within the context of menswear’s history. In fact, it is perhaps even more difficult to fathom what the fate of these integral menswear items would have been without the legendary style impact of Marlon Brando. One of the most influential and celebrated American screen and stage actors of

Donna Karan

Sandra J. Ley

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Flyte Ostell

Emily M. Orr

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Gwen Stefani

Laura Peach

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

As the lead singer for the rock band No Doubt, Gwen Stefani became a fashion and cultural icon in the late 1990s, following the release of the 1995 record Tragic Kingdom, which sold sixteen million copies. With signature ruby-red lips and platinum blonde hair, Stefani became iconic for her look. In the early 1990s, she often wore midriff-baring tops, and frequently appropriated symbolic ethnic fashions such as Indian bindi or mehndi-painted hands. Stefani and her band are from Orange County, Cali

Polo Shirt, Ralph Lauren, Spring/Summer 1999

Jaclyn Pyper

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

An item of clothing with its origins in sportswear, the polo shirt (also known as the golf shirt or tennis shirt) has since been adopted by many designers and included in catwalk collections. The roots of the polo shirt can be traced to polo players in the late 1800s, and the style was later adapted for the tennis courts by René Lacoste in the 1920s. A symbol of preppy, collegiate style by the latter half of the twentieth century, the polo shirt continues to be used and adapted by designers, ofte

Antoni & Alison

Vanessa Semmens

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Blumarine

Vanessa Semmens

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

White

Shari Sims

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

“Pure white” may just be the oldest fashion statement of all time, harking back to Biblical angels and the earliest use of linen recorded by Ancient Egyptians some 4,000 years ago. In modern times, virtually every couture fashion house features fantastical visions of brides in white on the catwalk, while any view of streetwear from the 1970s onward could hardly be complete without the ubiquitous white T-shirt. Once, white collars and cuffs may have been the trappings of the landed gentry, but the

Greasers

Else Skjold

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

“Greasers” were devotees of a subcultural style originally for young, working-class men (later also women) that emerged in the 1950s in the United States. The word “grease” refers to the wax or pomade used to make the characteristic hairdo of the look, which also typically included biker boots, jeans, T-shirts, and leather jackets. Groupings of greasers would often appear in motorcycle gangs around the emerging rock ’n’ roll scene, and parts of the subculture formed the motorcycle club “Hell’s An

Uniforms

Nigel Arch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A uniform may be defined as a prescribed set of clothing peculiar to a distinct group of individuals within a society. It is distinguished by displays of hierarchy evident on parts of the dress and will usually also display emblems that act as signals only readily interpreted by other members of the group. Hierarchy is expressed in terms of rank, and badges of rank have appeared on such elements of uniform dress as the shoulder strap and cuffs of the upper body garment. Other symbols act as remin

Dress in Hawai’i since 1898

Linda Boynton Arthur

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Hawai’i became a territory of the United States in 1898. The population of native Hawaiians had been significantly reduced due to the introduction of foreign diseases in the 1800s. Hawaiian dress has consistently included body adornment worn by both men and women. Forms of adornment in Hawai’i include hats made of lauhala, floral leis worn around the neck and/or head, shell leis, and tattoos using traditional designs. In the 1930s, Western shirts began to be replaced by the aloha shirt. Hawaiian

The Māori Pari (Bodice)

Jo Diamond

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The pari is a Māori bodice of the rāranga type, worn with a piupiu (a type of fibrous skirt) and Māori jewelry by women in cultural performances including competitions, concerts, and festivals. Rāranga is a generic naming for plaited (as opposed to loom) handweaving practices undertaken mostly, though not exclusively, by Māori women. Māori performances usually occur in order to promote traditional practices, but for some they include a more material reward or prize money or are part of fund-raisi

Early History of Dress and Fashion in Italy and the Iberian Peninsula

Carmen Alfaro Giner and Maria Giuseppina Muzzarelli

Translated by Ana Alacovska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Rock engravings in Valcamonica, Italy, indicate the use of looms and thus weaving in the second millennium b.c.e. Tunics were worn by both men and women during pre-Roman times in the Iberian Peninsula.Italian regions colonized by Greece in the eighth century b.c.e. were influenced by Hellenic fashion. The Roman royal period lasted from 753 to 509 b.c.e., followed by the republic and the empire. Clothing during the first two periods was largely austere, although wealth and refinement characterized

Linen

Margarita Gleba

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Since prehistory, linen, made from flax, has been one of the most widely used textile materials. Linen does not take easily to natural dyes, so before the advent of synthetic colorants it was rarely dyed. Linen is particularly suitable for utilitarian fabrics, owing to its strength, low elasticity, and durability. The earliest known textiles are linen. In Europe, flax was cultivated by the second half of the seventh millennium b.c.e. Some surviving fabrics are so fine that they still cannot be du

Blouse

H. Kristina Haugland

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sámi

Desiree Koslin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sápmi, the Subarctic region of North Europe and West Russia, is home to the Sámi people, estimated to be a population of about seventy-five thousand to eighty-five thousand in the early twenty-first century. Distinctive dress is an important marker of Sámi identity. Traditional Sámi dress shares many features with other Arctic and Subarctic peoples. Garments and footwear were made from the furs, skins, sinews, and organs of mammals, birds, and fish. Current Sámi festive dress is a source of pride

The Swanndri in New Zealand

Bronwyn Labrum

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Since its invention in the early twentieth century, the Swanndri, a woolen bush shirt, has become synonymous with New Zealand’s outdoor lifestyle. It started life as farmers’ garb and was designed by English emigrant William Henry Broome, who in 1902 had settled in New Plymouth in the rural heartland of Taranaki North Island at the age of twenty-one. The son of a shoe manufacturer, he established himself as a clothier and tailor. His business flourished, and in 1935 he went into partnership with

The Sarong Kebaya of Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia

Chor Lin Lee

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The epical images on bas-reliefs of Javanese classical monuments such as Prambanan and Borobudur suggest that the courts of central Java preserved many facets of ancient society. Dress was one of them. Outside the ritual-bound context of these courts, dress changed dramatically. During the Hindu-Buddhist era (eighth to fourteenth centuries), women dressed predominantly in a style largely influenced by the Indian sojourners: Their shoulders were bare, their chests were wrapped in a continuous piec

Gender

Gertrud Lehnert

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The basic distinction between female and male dress in the Western world is between women’s skirts and men’s bifurcated trousers. Only in the twentieth century was this abandoned—but in one direction, since, even today, men do not wear skirts, despite some attempts by fashion designers. This does not indicate that trousers are more natural for men, but that in the West, they denote supremacy and masculinity. From the late Middle Ages onwards, increasing emphasis was put on gender differentiation

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