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Michiko Koshino

Alessandro Esculapio

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Kosuke Tsumura

Alessandro Esculapio

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Balenciaga

Casey Mackenzie Johnson

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Wendy Dagworthy

Michelle Labrague

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Sportmax

Nanna Marie Lund

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Christopher Bailey

Shonagh Marshall

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Max Mara

Emily M. Orr

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

The Genealogy of the Turkish Pardösü in the Netherlands

R. Arzu Ünal

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

Three-quarter-length overcoats were the most commonly worn outdoor attire mentioned in the accounts of migrant women coming to the Netherlands in the late 1970s. A few Turkish women came alone as workers;most of them were the wives of guest workers and came as temporary residents. The first generation of migrant women described that particular style of overcoat as the first modern and şehirli(urban) item of outdoor clothing they had ever worn. These were relatively close-fitting overcoats, intend

Tweed

Fiona Anderson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Tweed cloth originated in Scotland in the early nineteenth century. At that time, it was only made from woolen yarns in the twill weave. From the 1820s to the present, tweed has been characterized by a huge range of color and weave effects. The main account given for the origins of the name tweed is that it is based on a misreading of the Scottish word tweel or twill (which was the weave characteristic of Scottish woolens at that time) for tweed. By the 1840s, tweed was established as a term used

Belarus

Hanna Chuchvaha

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the thirteenth century, Belarusian ethnic territory became an independent part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Developing handicraft industries and foreign commerce within the duchy in the sixteenth century favored new foreign garments. During the seventeenth century, the wealthy adopted West European, predominantly French, fashion. In 1795, the eastern territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, including the Belarusian territories, were annexed to the Russian Empire. In the nineteenth cent

Body and Dress

Angela Durante and Jenny Ellison

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

All human cultures engage in some form of dress and adornment. Although our bodies and the items we put on them might appear to be separate, they in fact have a great deal in common and are considerably intertwined. A dressed body represents a complex set of negotiations between an individual, the fashion system, and the social context in which they exist. Codes of dress set parameters but do not entirely determine how individuals dress. The body and dress are mutually constitutive—dress adds soc

Wool

Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Translated by Stig Erik Sørheim

Kjetil Enstad

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Wool is probably the first fiber humans used, and throughout history it has been not only the most utilized fiber but also a commodity of great economic significance. In the twenty-first century, wool plays a more modest role and is primarily associated with quality and tradition.

Ukraine

Natalie Kononenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Ukraine is an ancient land of great natural resources that has supported human habitation since prehistoric times. Yet it has existed as an independent state only since 1991. Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus all developed from Rus’, a conglomeration of city-states headed by Kyiv (the Ukrainian spelling of the city otherwise known as Kiev), the capital of modern Ukraine. This state, which is often referred to as Kyivan Rus’, flourished in the tenth to twelfth centuries. After the collapse of Rus’ the

Gender

Gertrud Lehnert

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The basic distinction between female and male dress in the Western world is between women’s skirts and men’s bifurcated trousers. Only in the twentieth century was this abandoned—but in one direction, since, even today, men do not wear skirts, despite some attempts by fashion designers. This does not indicate that trousers are more natural for men, but that in the West, they denote supremacy and masculinity. From the late Middle Ages onwards, increasing emphasis was put on gender differentiation

Bulgaria: Ethnic Dress

Liz Mellish

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Over many centuries, Bulgaria’s complicated history brought peoples of various ethnicities into the region. In the seventh century c.e., the Bulgars, originally a Turkic-Tartar tribe, united with the Slavonic tribes who had settled in the region two centuries before in order to resist the Byzantines. The first Bulgarian state was founded and, while the new nationality took the name of the Bulgars, it was culturally strongly influenced by Slavonic civilization, including in terms of dress.

Romania: Ethnic Dress

Liz Mellish

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Modern Romania incorporates the regions of Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia. Rulers of the territory of modern Romania have included the Roman, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman Empires. Different regions have been affected by differing cultures, influencing dress developments. The basic structure of ethnic dress across Romania is similar to that of the surrounding countries of southeast Europe. Women’s clothing was based on homespun chemises worn with one or two woven wool aprons. Men’s clothin

The Arctic

Birgit Pauksztat

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In an environment where temperatures are below freezing for much of the year, appropriate clothing is vital. For the native peoples of Arctic North America, until about the mid-twentieth century, survival largely depended on women’s skills to create clothing that provides insulation against the cold and protection from snow, ice, and water. At the same time, the garments are lightweight and durable, and their designs provide the freedom of movement required for carrying out everyday activities.

Syria

Tineke Rooijakkers and Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Syrian Arab Republic, or Syria, lies in Southwest Asia and borders Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Israel to the southwest, Jordan to the south, Iraq to the east, and Turkey to the north. Its position between the eastern Mediterranean, the Iranian Plateau, and Central Asia has meant that, for centuries, Syria has been an important political and trading region that has influenced, and been influenced by, many cultures in the region. The capital of the country is the historical c

Mantua

Dennita Sewell

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A Mantua is a kind of loose Coat without any stays in it, the body part and sleeves are of as many fashions as I have mentioned in the Gown Body; but the skirt is sometime no longer than the Knees, others have them down to the Heels. The short skirt is open before, and behind to the middle: this is called a Semmer, or Semare: have a loose Body, and four side laps or skirts; which extend to the knee, the sleeves short not to the Elbow turned up and faced.

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Fur

Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fur comes from animal pelts that are chemically treated to make the leather supple and retain the hairs, which consist of guard hairs and underwool. Although furs come from many different animals, the most common in the twenty-first century are mink and fox. Fur has been appreciated for two outstanding qualities: warmth, essential in cold climates, and appearance, which accounts for its association with ostentation and prestige dressing. Comfort and durability have also made fur garments and acce

Poland: Urban Dress up to 1900

Anna Straszewska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the early sixteenth century, Renaissance styles became popular in Poland, with Eastern influences emerging from the union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Hungarian connections were likewise significant, Hungary being influenced by the Orient through the Ottoman Empire. During the sixteenth century, Polish-Lithuanian noblemen started adopting Oriental attire called “Sarmatian dress,” believing themselves descendants of the ancient Sarmatians who, according to Pli

Dress from Kyrgyzstan

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Kyrgyz Republic, or Kyrgyzstan as it is more commonly known, is a country in Central Asia. The name Kyrgyz is said to mean either “forty girls” or “forty tribes” and is a name that probably refers to the epic hero Manas, who unified forty tribes against the Mongols in the medieval period. Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked and mountainous country which has borders with Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest, and China to the east. Since many ethnic groups in the

A-Line Dress

Susan Ward

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

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