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Seeing the blur—perception, cool, and mechanized speed (1910–present)

Vanessa Brown

Source: Cool Shades. The History and Meaning of Sunglasses, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

speedindustrialised consciousness; panoramic perception; Virilio, PaulAlthough the now-ubiquitous image of bikini, shades, and sun-lounger might suggest that the ideal wearer of sunglasses enjoys the luxury of being blissfully inert, the dynamic power, excess, and seductive glamor of men and women speeding along in shades is undeniable—from the tough sheen of Marlon Brando in The Wild Ones to twenty-first century pop acts like Britney SpearsBritney Spears in “Toxic,” where impenetrable diamond-st

Wendy Dagworthy

Michelle Labrague

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Designer Biography

Providing Mobility in Clothing

Susan M. Watkins and Lucy E. Dunne

Source: Functional Clothing Design. From Sportswear to Spacesuits, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Since clothing is intended to be a second skin, there is no better way to begin a study of mobility needs in clothing than by looking at the mobility of the body itself. Put most simply, movement is the result of the following chain of events: (1) the brain sends signals to the appropriate nerve fibers or motor neurons; (2) they in turn send out impulses, via nerve fibers, which extend from the spinal cord to muscle fibers all over the body; (3) these impulses stimulate the appropriate muscle fib

Thermal Protection

Susan M. Watkins and Lucy E. Dunne

Source: Functional Clothing Design. From Sportswear to Spacesuits, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The human body adjusts to temperature changes by producing or releasing heat in specific ways. Heat can also be transferred from the environment to the body by various means. To see how body processes of heat production and dissipation are called into play, it is important to understand the basic ways in which heat can be transferred from one object to another.

Impact Protection

Susan M. Watkins and Lucy E. Dunne

Source: Functional Clothing Design. From Sportswear to Spacesuits, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Dictionary definitions of impact use the phrases, “a striking together” or “violent contact.” The word collision is often used as a synonym. These definitions refer to only one type of impact—one due to compressive forces. Actually, three actions result from the application of forces on impact: tension, shear, and compression. Each application of force places different stresses on an object. Figure 6.2 shows what happens when force is applied to the opposite ends of a body made of a pliable mater

Living and Working in Hazardous Environments

Susan M. Watkins and Lucy E. Dunne

Source: Functional Clothing Design. From Sportswear to Spacesuits, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Four significant types of environmental threats from which individuals in a variety of work and life situations need to be protected are chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear hazards, generally referred to as CBRN. While these hazards can occur in any of the three states of matter (solid, liquid, or gas), some of the most hazardous to humans often occur in a combination of those states as aerosols. Aerosols are tiny particles of solids or liquids suspended in a gas. They include dusts,

Enhancing and Augmenting Body Functions

Susan M. Watkins and Lucy E. Dunne

Source: Functional Clothing Design. From Sportswear to Spacesuits, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

A garment is perceived by both its wearer and others. The quality of this perception—whether the garment is comfortable or uncomfortable, attention grabbing or unnoticeable—depends on designers’ choices with respect to the design elements that stimulate the senses.

Fashions for a Phoney War

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Antarctic Explorer Wear

Natalie Cadenhead

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing worn in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica demonstrates important design changes developed to assist wearers with extreme weather conditions. Antarctic clothing history is split into two main eras: the heroic era from 1840 to 1917 and the scientific era from 1940 to the twenty-first century. Exploration that occurred between these eras was mainly sea-based for commercial reasons (sealing and whaling) and did not affect clothing design in any major way. At the beginning of the heroic era o

Aprons

Joyce Cheney

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Aprons were worn by some Native American women and men, for both practical and ceremonial reasons. Through the centuries, colonial immigrants and their descendants have worn functional aprons for work, while decorative aprons have fallen in and out of fashion.

Headdress

Beverly Chico

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Hairnets may be the oldest headdresses worn by humans. A mammoth-ivory figurine dated circa 36,000 B.C.E. and found at Brassempouy (Las Landes), France, shows a human face with hair possibly braided and covered with what appears to be a netting. Bronze Age second millennium B.C.E. hairnets of horsehair using the sprang or twisted-thread technique were found in Borum Eshøj, Denmark, and are preserved in the National Museum, Copenhagen. Complementing long, unfitted robes, a fashionable silk hairnet

South Africa Overview

Patricia Davison

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

South Africa offers a rich field for exploring the symbolic language of dress in the varied contexts of everyday life. It is a country of many cultural layers, with eleven official languages and a relatively recent history of racial segregation and imposed ethnically based “homelands.” After 1994, however, when South Africa became a multiparty democracy, the new nation aspired to be united in its diversity, even though the inequalities of the past remained embedded in many social institutions and

Health

Jane Farrell-Beck

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

In most environments on Earth, clothing provides needed protection from the elements and other hazards. Yet over the past two centuries, dress has been vilified as the source of disease and death or lauded as a device for improving health and physical vigor. Writers have often directed their prescriptions and proscriptions toward women’s dress, but they also critiqued men’s and children’s apparel. An early health concern was problems and solutions connected to microbes and dermatological hazards,

Conventional Work Dress

Colleen Gau

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Historically, climate and work environments are primary to the selection and production of work clothing, but safety concerns, economic and business climates, fashion, and ethics find a place in the clothing narrative of Western civilizations. As crops and animals were domesticated, empires emerged in the Nile and Mediterranean regions, and the classification of skill groups became more distinct. Animal skins were replaced by woven garments by the time people had settled into communities. Herding

Conventional Work Dress and Casual Work Dress

Colleen Gau

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing of men and women who lived and worked in the United States and Canada since the beginning of the nineteenth century through the start of the twenty-first century has presented a microcosm of societies’ changes. Agriculture was the primary means of livelihood at the outset and continues to play a role for a small portion of the population. Rag pickers, rug weavers, and quilters wore and reused fabrics; therefore, not many examples of work dress have survived. Early sewing machines of Germ

Yi National Minority

Stevan Harrell and Bamo Qubumo

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Numbering nearly eight million, the Yi national minority is the seventh largest minority in China. Also known as the Nuosu, they live mainly in the hillside and basin areas of Yunnan province, with significant populations in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, and the Guangxi Autonomous Region. Among the Nuosu Yi people of the Liangshan region, in the mountains of southwestern Sichuan, clothing and decoration reflect social organization and cultural concepts, expressing aesthetic ideals of womanly bea

The Figures on the Tombs: Dress in Brass Rubbings

Moira F. Harris

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Knight and lady, merchant and priest, scholar and nun—their images once populated the walls and floors of European churches, beginning in the twelfth century. Incised slabs were used first; there remain many of them on the continent of Europe, especially in Germany, Belgium, and Poland. Brasses are more common in the United Kingdom, although many stone slabs bear shadowy cavities where brass figures once glistened. Sepulchral images that still exist, in reality or in copies, offer insights not on

Armor

Walter Karcheski

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Humans’ earliest supplemental protection was probably skins and hides. However, the earliest purpose-built defense, found in Europe and western Asia, was a type of belly plate made originally of organic material and later in bronze or metal-reinforced fabric. The Sumerians employed metal helmets and a metal-reinforced cloak. In about 2000 B.C.E. textile coverings appeared with applied, overlapping metal scales, which continued in occasional use until the eighteenth century.

Class, Work, and Dress

Alexandra Kim

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

During the nineteenth century, clothing in West Europe was inextricably linked to a person’s class and occupation. Dress was constantly used to determine a person’s social status. Although there were obvious variations in occupational dress across the Continent, a worker’s clothing—whether in the countryside or the city—would have clearly indicated his or her place in the social hierarchy. Changing work patterns, a growing informality, and the fragmentation of the class structure in the twentieth

Pedi, Ndebele, and Ntwane Dress and Beadwork

Sandra Klopper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Pedi, Ndebele, and Ntwane communities developed close links during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in what is now South Africa’s Mpumalanga province. Some of their beadwork and rituals are almost identical. Today there are two Ndebele groups, the Manala and Ndzundza. Influenced by missionaries, the former gradually lost touch with traditional dress, while the Ndzundza, forcibly indentured to white farmers in the 1880s, strove for cultural cohesion, developing beadwork associated with i

Bulgaria: Ethnic Dress

Liz Mellish

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Over many centuries, Bulgaria’s complicated history brought peoples of various ethnicities into the region. In the seventh century c.e., the Bulgars, originally a Turkic-Tartar tribe, united with the Slavonic tribes who had settled in the region two centuries before in order to resist the Byzantines. The first Bulgarian state was founded and, while the new nationality took the name of the Bulgars, it was culturally strongly influenced by Slavonic civilization, including in terms of dress.

Romania: Ethnic Dress

Liz Mellish

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Modern Romania incorporates the regions of Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia. Rulers of the territory of modern Romania have included the Roman, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman Empires. Different regions have been affected by differing cultures, influencing dress developments. The basic structure of ethnic dress across Romania is similar to that of the surrounding countries of southeast Europe. Women’s clothing was based on homespun chemises worn with one or two woven wool aprons. Men’s clothin

Intelligent Textiles

Bradley Quinn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Intelligent textiles are fabrics designed to be programmable in order to produce data about the exchanges they facilitate and the changes they effect. They often have interwoven circuitry and technological parts, embedded sensors and conductive fibers, or coatings of sensory materials, that is, materials capable of transmitting and receiving information about the wearer’s surroundings, and that effect a deliberate transformation while worn on the body. Known variously as technotextiles, technical

Lithuania: Ethnic Dress

Ruta Saliklis

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Lithuania, situated in northeastern Europe on the Baltic Sea, was until the twentieth century a nation of people living off the land. Up until 1970, more than half of Lithuania’s population lived outside of major urban areas. The country is covered with deciduous and coniferous forests, glacial lakes, and rivers. Many of the forests have been cut down, but until the mid-twentieth century, people living outside of major cities were very isolated, causing them to develop regional linguistic dialect

Dress for Recreational Sports and Professional Sports

Susan L. Sokolowski

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Sport is any athletic activity that requires physical skill, rules, or customs and specific dress and environment in order to participate. Recreational sport is any athletic activity that a person may participate in to occupy one’s spare time enjoyably, as a diversion from work or school. Some people participate in recreational sports to help manage a healthy lifestyle and improve their physique. There are a multitude of sports in which North Americans participate. Special types of dress that fac

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