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Wendy Dagworthy

Michelle Labrague

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Fashions for a Phoney War

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Antarctic Explorer Wear

Natalie Cadenhead

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing worn in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica demonstrates important design changes developed to assist wearers with extreme weather conditions. Antarctic clothing history is split into two main eras: the heroic era from 1840 to 1917 and the scientific era from 1940 to the twenty-first century. Exploration that occurred between these eras was mainly sea-based for commercial reasons (sealing and whaling) and did not affect clothing design in any major way. At the beginning of the heroic era o

Aprons

Joyce Cheney

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Aprons were worn by some Native American women and men, for both practical and ceremonial reasons. Through the centuries, colonial immigrants and their descendants have worn functional aprons for work, while decorative aprons have fallen in and out of fashion.

Explore
Headdress

Beverly Chico

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Hairnets may be the oldest headdresses worn by humans. A mammoth-ivory figurine dated circa 36,000 B.C.E. and found at Brassempouy (Las Landes), France, shows a human face with hair possibly braided and covered with what appears to be a netting. Bronze Age second millennium B.C.E. hairnets of horsehair using the sprang or twisted-thread technique were found in Borum Eshøj, Denmark, and are preserved in the National Museum, Copenhagen. Complementing long, unfitted robes, a fashionable silk hairnet

South Africa Overview

Patricia Davison

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

South Africa offers a rich field for exploring the symbolic language of dress in the varied contexts of everyday life. It is a country of many cultural layers, with eleven official languages and a relatively recent history of racial segregation and imposed ethnically based “homelands.” After 1994, however, when South Africa became a multiparty democracy, the new nation aspired to be united in its diversity, even though the inequalities of the past remained embedded in many social institutions and

Health

Jane Farrell-Beck

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In most environments on Earth, clothing provides needed protection from the elements and other hazards. Yet over the past two centuries, dress has been vilified as the source of disease and death or lauded as a device for improving health and physical vigor. Writers have often directed their prescriptions and proscriptions toward women’s dress, but they also critiqued men’s and children’s apparel. An early health concern was problems and solutions connected to microbes and dermatological hazards,

Conventional Work Dress and Casual Work Dress

Colleen Gau

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing of men and women who lived and worked in the United States and Canada since the beginning of the nineteenth century through the start of the twenty-first century has presented a microcosm of societies’ changes. Agriculture was the primary means of livelihood at the outset and continues to play a role for a small portion of the population. Rag pickers, rug weavers, and quilters wore and reused fabrics; therefore, not many examples of work dress have survived. Early sewing machines of Germ

Conventional Work Dress

Colleen Gau

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Historically, climate and work environments are primary to the selection and production of work clothing, but safety concerns, economic and business climates, fashion, and ethics find a place in the clothing narrative of Western civilizations. As crops and animals were domesticated, empires emerged in the Nile and Mediterranean regions, and the classification of skill groups became more distinct. Animal skins were replaced by woven garments by the time people had settled into communities. Herding

Yi National Minority

Stevan Harrell and Bamo Qubumo

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Numbering nearly eight million, the Yi national minority is the seventh largest minority in China. Also known as the Nuosu, they live mainly in the hillside and basin areas of Yunnan province, with significant populations in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, and the Guangxi Autonomous Region. Among the Nuosu Yi people of the Liangshan region, in the mountains of southwestern Sichuan, clothing and decoration reflect social organization and cultural concepts, expressing aesthetic ideals of womanly bea

Armor

Walter Karcheski

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Humans’ earliest supplemental protection was probably skins and hides. However, the earliest purpose-built defense, found in Europe and western Asia, was a type of belly plate made originally of organic material and later in bronze or metal-reinforced fabric. The Sumerians employed metal helmets and a metal-reinforced cloak. In about 2000 B.C.E. textile coverings appeared with applied, overlapping metal scales, which continued in occasional use until the eighteenth century.

Class, Work, and Dress

Alexandra Kim

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the nineteenth century, clothing in West Europe was inextricably linked to a person’s class and occupation. Dress was constantly used to determine a person’s social status. Although there were obvious variations in occupational dress across the Continent, a worker’s clothing—whether in the countryside or the city—would have clearly indicated his or her place in the social hierarchy. Changing work patterns, a growing informality, and the fragmentation of the class structure in the twentieth

Pedi, Ndebele, and Ntwane Dress and Beadwork

Sandra Klopper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Pedi, Ndebele, and Ntwane communities developed close links during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in what is now South Africa’s Mpumalanga province. Some of their beadwork and rituals are almost identical. Today there are two Ndebele groups, the Manala and Ndzundza. Influenced by missionaries, the former gradually lost touch with traditional dress, while the Ndzundza, forcibly indentured to white farmers in the 1880s, strove for cultural cohesion, developing beadwork associated with i

Bulgaria: Ethnic Dress

Liz Mellish

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Over many centuries, Bulgaria’s complicated history brought peoples of various ethnicities into the region. In the seventh century c.e., the Bulgars, originally a Turkic-Tartar tribe, united with the Slavonic tribes who had settled in the region two centuries before in order to resist the Byzantines. The first Bulgarian state was founded and, while the new nationality took the name of the Bulgars, it was culturally strongly influenced by Slavonic civilization, including in terms of dress.

Romania: Ethnic Dress

Liz Mellish

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Modern Romania incorporates the regions of Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia. Rulers of the territory of modern Romania have included the Roman, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman Empires. Different regions have been affected by differing cultures, influencing dress developments. The basic structure of ethnic dress across Romania is similar to that of the surrounding countries of southeast Europe. Women’s clothing was based on homespun chemises worn with one or two woven wool aprons. Men’s clothin

Intelligent Textiles

Bradley Quinn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Intelligent textiles are fabrics designed to be programmable in order to produce data about the exchanges they facilitate and the changes they effect. They often have interwoven circuitry and technological parts, embedded sensors and conductive fibers, or coatings of sensory materials, that is, materials capable of transmitting and receiving information about the wearer’s surroundings, and that effect a deliberate transformation while worn on the body. Known variously as technotextiles, technical

Lithuania: Ethnic Dress

Ruta Saliklis

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Lithuania, situated in northeastern Europe on the Baltic Sea, was until the twentieth century a nation of people living off the land. Up until 1970, more than half of Lithuania’s population lived outside of major urban areas. The country is covered with deciduous and coniferous forests, glacial lakes, and rivers. Many of the forests have been cut down, but until the mid-twentieth century, people living outside of major cities were very isolated, causing them to develop regional linguistic dialect

Dress for Recreational Sports and Professional Sports

Susan L. Sokolowski

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sport is any athletic activity that requires physical skill, rules, or customs and specific dress and environment in order to participate. Recreational sport is any athletic activity that a person may participate in to occupy one’s spare time enjoyably, as a diversion from work or school. Some people participate in recreational sports to help manage a healthy lifestyle and improve their physique. There are a multitude of sports in which North Americans participate. Special types of dress that fac

Children’s Dress in China

Naomi Yin Yin Szeto

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Children are the treasures of Chinese society. From the imperial court and the elite class to the peasants, objects and activities related to the body adornment of children embodied the aspirations and blessings of their parents and older generations. Traditional Chinese children’s attire includes scaled-down versions of adult clothing, as well as a range of specific garments. Although China has a recorded history of almost four thousand years, the surviving pieces of children’s clothing dating p

Weapons and Accessories

Willem Vogelsang

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Southwest and Central Asia, weapons constituted an essential part of men’s dress, especially for those of some rank and standing in society. Men did not use these weapons only for offensive and defensive purposes; a weapon was an extension of the wearer’s manhood. A beautiful sword, a handsome dagger, or a pair of costly pistols contributed to showing the world that the wearer was a man to be reckoned with. In public, the wearer would very proudly show his costly clothing and weaponry; his bea

Body Armor

Susan Watkins

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although the term body armor has traditionally described apparel providing physical protection for combatants, the term might apply equally well to protective garments for any situation in which humans face danger from impact. Sports equipment, construction hard hats, and medical splints have often been inspired by military armor. There are a number of forms of armor: flexible fabric garments; scalar armor; plate armor; mail; lamellar armor, and combination armor incorporating both rigid and flex

Functional Dress

Susan M. Watkins

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Functional dress may either serve as a protective barrier between some hazard and its wearer or function as an enhancement, adding capabilities to the body. The word dress generally connotes items made of flexible textile materials, but functional dress may incorporate major areas of hard goods or be made entirely of rigid materials. A functional garment, whether it is flexible or rigid, can be conceptually differentiated from other products or environmental structures such as vehicles or buildin

Levi Strauss & Co.

Lauren D. Whitley

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

On the Antiquity of East European Bridal Clothing

E. J. W. Barber

Source: Folk Dress in Europe and Anatolia. Beliefs about Protection and Fertility 1999

Book chapter

A clearer notion of how the Eastern Europeans generally viewed the matter of “brides” can be culled from Algirdas J. Greimas’ description of the Lithuanian term marti:

Threads of Life: Red Fringes in Macedonian Dressemphasis

Vesna Mladenovic

Source: Folk Dress in Europe and Anatolia. Beliefs about Protection and Fertility 1999

Book chapter

The two districts discussed here are both situated in western Macedonia, the region west of the river Vardar. The Debar-Miyak district is a mountainous territory bordering Albania. It takes its name from the largest town in that district, Debar, and from the Miyaks, a Christian-Orthodox tribe who lived in that district.

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