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Aprons

Joyce Cheney

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Aprons were worn by some Native American women and men, for both practical and ceremonial reasons. Through the centuries, colonial immigrants and their descendants have worn functional aprons for work, while decorative aprons have fallen in and out of fashion.

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South Africa Overview

Patricia Davison

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

South Africa offers a rich field for exploring the symbolic language of dress in the varied contexts of everyday life. It is a country of many cultural layers, with eleven official languages and a relatively recent history of racial segregation and imposed ethnically based “homelands.” After 1994, however, when South Africa became a multiparty democracy, the new nation aspired to be united in its diversity, even though the inequalities of the past remained embedded in many social institutions and

Conventional Work Dress

Colleen Gau

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Historically, climate and work environments are primary to the selection and production of work clothing, but safety concerns, economic and business climates, fashion, and ethics find a place in the clothing narrative of Western civilizations. As crops and animals were domesticated, empires emerged in the Nile and Mediterranean regions, and the classification of skill groups became more distinct. Animal skins were replaced by woven garments by the time people had settled into communities. Herding

Class, Work, and Dress

Alexandra Kim

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the nineteenth century, clothing in West Europe was inextricably linked to a person’s class and occupation. Dress was constantly used to determine a person’s social status. Although there were obvious variations in occupational dress across the Continent, a worker’s clothing—whether in the countryside or the city—would have clearly indicated his or her place in the social hierarchy. Changing work patterns, a growing informality, and the fragmentation of the class structure in the twentieth

Pedi, Ndebele, and Ntwane Dress and Beadwork

Sandra Klopper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Pedi, Ndebele, and Ntwane communities developed close links during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in what is now South Africa’s Mpumalanga province. Some of their beadwork and rituals are almost identical. Today there are two Ndebele groups, the Manala and Ndzundza. Influenced by missionaries, the former gradually lost touch with traditional dress, while the Ndzundza, forcibly indentured to white farmers in the 1880s, strove for cultural cohesion, developing beadwork associated with i

Bulgaria: Ethnic Dress

Liz Mellish

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Over many centuries, Bulgaria’s complicated history brought peoples of various ethnicities into the region. In the seventh century c.e., the Bulgars, originally a Turkic-Tartar tribe, united with the Slavonic tribes who had settled in the region two centuries before in order to resist the Byzantines. The first Bulgarian state was founded and, while the new nationality took the name of the Bulgars, it was culturally strongly influenced by Slavonic civilization, including in terms of dress.

Romania: Ethnic Dress

Liz Mellish

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Modern Romania incorporates the regions of Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia. Rulers of the territory of modern Romania have included the Roman, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman Empires. Different regions have been affected by differing cultures, influencing dress developments. The basic structure of ethnic dress across Romania is similar to that of the surrounding countries of southeast Europe. Women’s clothing was based on homespun chemises worn with one or two woven wool aprons. Men’s clothin

Lithuania: Ethnic Dress

Ruta Saliklis

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Lithuania, situated in northeastern Europe on the Baltic Sea, was until the twentieth century a nation of people living off the land. Up until 1970, more than half of Lithuania’s population lived outside of major urban areas. The country is covered with deciduous and coniferous forests, glacial lakes, and rivers. Many of the forests have been cut down, but until the mid-twentieth century, people living outside of major cities were very isolated, causing them to develop regional linguistic dialect

On the Antiquity of East European Bridal Clothing

E. J. W. Barber

Source: Folk Dress in Europe and Anatolia. Beliefs about Protection and Fertility 1999

Book chapter

A clearer notion of how the Eastern Europeans generally viewed the matter of “brides” can be culled from Algirdas J. Greimas’ description of the Lithuanian term marti:

Threads of Life: Red Fringes in Macedonian Dressemphasis

Vesna Mladenovic

Source: Folk Dress in Europe and Anatolia. Beliefs about Protection and Fertility 1999

Book chapter

The two districts discussed here are both situated in western Macedonia, the region west of the river Vardar. The Debar-Miyak district is a mountainous territory bordering Albania. It takes its name from the largest town in that district, Debar, and from the Miyaks, a Christian-Orthodox tribe who lived in that district.

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