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Makeup on the Catwalk from the 1970s to 2000

Geraldine Biddle-Perry

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

This article is an exploratory history within a history of the catwalk since the 1970s. It examines the centrality of makeup to shifting systems and structures of catwalk performance and spectacle, but it is not a trend-by-trend analysis of cosmetic practices and products. Rather, the aim is to examine catwalk makeup as a generative force within the wider transformation of fashion image as commodity and cultural form in the latter decades of the twentieth century.

Carven

Stephanie Edith Herold

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Linda Evangelista

Laura Peach

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Supermodel Linda Evangelista was one of the most-seen faces in fashion, gracing over 600 magazine covers. Born in Ontario, Canada, Evangelista began modeling as a teenager. In the 1980s, she began working with photographer Peter Lindbergh, and her relationship with him transformed her into a supermodel. Evangelista was most known for the short haircut that shot her modeling career into the stratosphere, launching her as a supermodel. Although many photographs of Evangelista in the 1990s show her

Gwen Stefani

Laura Peach

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

As the lead singer for the rock band No Doubt, Gwen Stefani became a fashion and cultural icon in the late 1990s, following the release of the 1995 record Tragic Kingdom, which sold sixteen million copies. With signature ruby-red lips and platinum blonde hair, Stefani became iconic for her look. In the early 1990s, she often wore midriff-baring tops, and frequently appropriated symbolic ethnic fashions such as Indian bindi or mehndi-painted hands. Stefani and her band are from Orange County, Cali

Viktor & Rolf

Aimee Scott

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Hair from the 1970s to 2000

Shari Sims

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

A hairstyle can be thought of as a woman’s ultimate accessory, subject to changing whims and changing fashions. On the catwalk, hairstyles are often collaborations between fashion designers and multitalented hairstylists, who envision their collaborations as artistic creations rather than mere expressions of style. From the 1970s on, as images of fashion spread more and more rapidly via newspapers, magazines, TV, and— eventually—the Internet, hairstyling options ranged from the attention-getting

Paco Rabanne

Daphne Stylianou

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Introduction, Rationale, Context

Pamela Church Gibson

Source: Fashion and Celebrity Culture 2012

Book chapter

Fashion is the medicament that will console for the phenomenon of forgetting on a collective scale.

Keep Smiling Through: Good Health and Natural Beauty

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

The Healthy Body and the Politics of Fitness

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Introduction to Subcultural Body Style

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

After World War II, subcultures surfaced with prominence in urban spaces within Western culture (Thompson 1998). Scholars speculate that these subcultures formed because of shared issues and common needs that set them apart from mainstream culture and society (Cohen 1955). Over time, the term “subculture” gained negative connotations for four primary reasons. First, the very term “subculture” has a prefix of “sub,” which suggests something lower or below. Second, subculture members often come fro

Subcultural Body Style History

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

From the time we are born, the human body is modified for physical, spiritual, psychological, social, and cultural transformations. In fact, prehistoric mummies found in recent years suggest that body practices, modifications, associated supplements, and rituals were significant in the earliest of human cultures (Winge 2003). In 1991 a frozen Stone Age male mummy was found in the Ötztal Alps. Nicknamed Ötzi, this mummy shows evidence of possibly the earliest body modifications ever discovered. Re

Subcultural Body Style and Identity

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

Each subculture member has individual lived body experiences, which collectively create the generalizations about the subculture’s identity. These generalizations are then further extended to collective ideas about identity regarding the individual member, the specific subculture, and the entirety of all subcultures to some degree. The subcultural body becomes an amalgam of experiences—for example, piercings, tattoos, spiky hair, and propensity toward pain. Furthermore, each subculture has unwrit

Subcultural Body Style

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

While it may seem contrary to the individualistic nature of subcultures, these groups have style guidelines expected by members. Subcultural groups subtly and visually communicate acceptable dress and styles to current and future members, as well as to outsiders and posers (i.e., individuals who purposefully mimic subcultural dress). Accordingly, Ted Polhemus and Lynn Proctor (1978) state: The dress code of a social group prescribes limits, not absolute uniformity. To suggest that social identity

Future of Subcultural Body Style

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

Many Western subcultures contribute to and influence contemporary examples of fashion. The Hippie subculture influenced numerous fashion trends, such as embroidered jeans, shawls, and use of the peace symbol. The Punk subculture is credited with many 1980s fashion trends, such as distressed jeans, safety pin accessories, and band buttons or pins. During the past few decades, the Urban Tribal movement influenced contemporary body fashions with the use and display of body modifications, technologie

Rei Kawakubo and Comme des Garçons

Bonnie English

Source: Japanese Fashion Designers. The Work and Influence of Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo 2011

Book chapter

Vera Mackie (2003: 144)… women [in Japan] were condemned to be ‘mothers’ or ‘whores’.

Indigo Bodies: Fashion, Mirror Work and Sexual Identity in Milan

Roberta Sassatelli

Source: Global Denim 2011

Book chapter

Pondering over her wardrobe, Francesca, a stylish, freshly graduated woman in her mid-twenties, says that, whilst they are ‘vital’ to her, ‘Denim jeans just sit with the rest [of her clothes]: they are just in the middle of the mess, but I take them out much more often, so always know where they are’ (Interview 15). These few words allude to the particular position that jeans – normal and yet special – occupy in young people dressing practices. This partly reflects what youth from Milan participa

Benin

Joseph C.E. Adande

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Republic of Benin is bounded in the south by the Atlantic Ocean, in the north by Niger and Burkina Faso, in the east by Nigeria, and in the west by Togo. Thus, it naturally shares both history and culture with the peoples of these neighboring countries. In Benin, clothing, regardless of definition, is as complex and varied as its numerous linguistic groups. In the Benin Republic, Vodun adepts and masquerade performers dress primarily to please their gods and offer them the appropriate manifes

Togo

Agbenyega Adedze

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although dress in Togo is similar to that of its neighbors in West Africa, it has distinctive features that make it unique in the region. It is quite common for citizens of neighboring countries like Benin, Burkina Faso, and Ghana to identify a Togolese national by his or her clothes even though similar styles of dress might be present in these countries. Like most regions of the world, environment affects clothing choices, especially evident in practices distinguishing the north and the south of

Overview of Mongolia

Monisha Ahmed

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Walking down the main street in Ulan Bator, Mongolia’s capital, past gray, crumbling Soviet-era buildings, a woman wearing a blue silk del, or robe, contrasts with the robust man by her side in a sober, gray Western-style suit. Walking alongside them are women in skinny jeans, fitted T-shirts, and stiletto heels. But far from the city, a nomad wears his sheepskin robe, sitting astride his horse. Mongolia has many faces. Probably the most celebrated of these is Chinggis Khaan, better known by his

Aboriginal Dress in the Kimberley, Western Australia

Kim Akerman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As in most other areas of Australia, the Aboriginals of the Kimberley were traditionally unclothed. For them, dress consisted of headbands and hair belts. Pubic tassels (made by tying multiple strands of spun fur or hair string into a mop, suspended over the genital area) were worn occasionally. Other elements of dress consisted of ornaments made from feathers, fibers, animal teeth, or shell, the use of which was often dictated by the ceremonial and social status of the wearer. More complex ornam

Omani Dress

Julia M. Al-Zadjali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The English-speaking travelers of the past referred to Oman as the hidden corner of Arabia, yet Oman was and remains well known to its neighbors. It has an elaborate and rich history in the region, and the striking similarities to Oman’s neighbors that are found in dress throughout the country suggest that Oman has experienced many cultural, trade, and economic friendships over the centuries, which have left their mark. It is only in the early twenty-first century that attention is being paid to

Perfume and Incense

Julia Al-Zadjali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The use of perfumes is widespread throughout the Middle East. Throughout the Arab world a wide variety of spices, aromatic woods, flowers, seeds, and plants, such as ginger, pepper, and sandalwood are used for incense and perfumes. Many of these come from India. The essential oils from these sources are very important ingredients for both incenses (bakhoor) and perfumes. Sold at various prices, it is generally agreed that the more one pays for such an oil, the finer it is. For thousands of years

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