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Makeup on the Catwalk from the 1970s to 2000

Geraldine Biddle-Perry

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

This article is an exploratory history within a history of the catwalk since the 1970s. It examines the centrality of makeup to shifting systems and structures of catwalk performance and spectacle, but it is not a trend-by-trend analysis of cosmetic practices and products. Rather, the aim is to examine catwalk makeup as a generative force within the wider transformation of fashion image as commodity and cultural form in the latter decades of the twentieth century.

Keep Smiling Through: Good Health and Natural Beauty

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Performance Dress in Japan

Monica Bethe

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In early-twenty-first-century Japan, theater and dance performances range from the avant-garde to traditional performing arts that trace their beginnings to periods spanning over a thousand years. The costumes worn for these traditional performances reflect styles of dress prevalent at various historical periods, though not necessarily the period corresponding to the inception of the art in question. The story of performance costume must therefore be seen against the background of the history of

Cosmetics and Beauty Culture in Australia

Jennifer Craik

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Cosmetics and beauty culture are forms of body modification that have a place in the language of all cultures of fashion and dress. Australia has both indigenous and European traditions of body modification and aesthetics. In precontact times indigenous traditions were centrally connected with ritualistic practices, but they were also about making the body attractive. After European settlement colonists largely followed the cosmetic practices and beauty cultures of Europe and America. Among Europ

Nineteenth-Century Medical Views on Dress

Margaret Deppe

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Much attention has been given to the social context of clothing in the past as dress and fashion phenomena are critical indicators concerning the economic, political and ideological components of a given society. In England and North America in the nineteenth century, the tight lacing of ladies’ corsets was a function of clothing fashion as well as a fashion in morality and an indicator of social and economic status. Physicians joined dress reformers in repeatedly issuing warnings against tight l

Dress as Costume in the Theater and Performing Arts

Sandra Lee Evenson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In costume, individuals become characters of plays. Dressing for the performing arts works the same way. The performing arts include theater, dance, opera, films, television, and the circus. Costumes are made up of supplements to the body such as gowns and wigs, also including body modifications like makeup. Stylized Japanese Noh masks completely transform actors and constitute artwork in themselves. Throughout most of the history of theater, actors had to supply their own makeup and costumes, bu

Nail Art

Katherine Forde

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The practice of manicuring is itself extremely ancient. There is evidence that as far back as 4,000 years ago, manicures took place in southern Babylonia, and manicure instruments have been found in Egypt’s royal tombs. The Romans painted their nails with a mixture of sheep fat and blood. Turkish women created a pink tint for the nails from boiled rose petals. Women in biblical times not only dyed their hair but also painted their fingernails and toenails as well as hands and feet with henna juic

Soviet State Cosmetic Company TEZHE in the 1930s

Jukka Gronow

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Soviet culture of cosmetics was born in the middle of the 1930s. A major reorientation took place in the cultural policy of the USSR that had a direct impact on the consumption habits of Soviet citizens. This turn coincided with the final consolidation of Stalin’s power in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Stalin’s slogan from the year 1936, “life has become better, life has become more joyous, comrades,” summarized this new cultural mood. It formed a sharp contrast to the previous off

Cosmetics, Non-Western

Paula Heinonen

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Bridal Dress in Korea

Na Young Hong

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Traditional Korean lifestyles began changing with the opening of Korea to the outside world in the late nineteenth century. The first Western wedding in Korea took place in 1890; it took nearly seventy years for most Koreans to accept this style. Traditional ceremonies began giving way to Western-style weddings with the inflow of Western culture into Korea since the mid-1950s. Pyebaek, part of the traditional ceremony in which brides kowtow to the grooms’ intimate elders, remained until the early

Body Concepts in Korea and North Asia

Jaehee Jung

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although concepts of Korean female beauty have changed during the five-thousand-year history of the peninsula, these ideals have always been deeply embedded in the daily lives of women. Historically, they have been largely shaped by two influences from China: notions of famed female beauties and Confucian modesty. The theme of beautiful women formed an important genre of poetry and literature, as well as painting, in China and in the East Asian cultures influenced by it. These images, while often

Sudan

Susan M. Kenyon

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Republic of the Sudan is the largest country in Africa, encompassing nearly a million square miles, with great diversity of both environment and population. Its landscapes range from desert in the north to rainforests in the south, and, while rainfall varies, temperatures are uniformly high, a significant factor in considering what people there wear. Sudan’s approximately thirty million people include more than fifty ethnic groups, with differing identities reflected in their appearance. Inva

Beauty, Nature, and Equality

Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the Greek mythical universe, beauty was a gift from the gods, associated with order and cosmos. This mentality was later discredited in Western culture, as physical beauty became considered superficial or even sinful. The situation today is paradoxical: in the world of fairytales, literature, and magazines, beauty is worshipped, yet there is no theoretical reflection around this. One of the main ideals of democracy is the individual’s opportunity to achieve status through actions; hence, empha

Competitive Ballroom Dance

Jonathan S. Marion

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Competitive ballroom costuming facilitates and maximizes the artistic and expressive impact of competitors’ dancing. It is meant to accentuate the movements of dancers’ performances and enhance the artistic images being produced. Artistic costume on the one hand, ballroom dress serves simultaneously as functional athletic wear that must stand up to the physical rigors and stresses involved in the tremendous movement and motion competitors produce. Balancing art and athletics, and in line with spe

Theatrical Makeup

Elizabeth McLafferty

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Explore
Makeup Artists

Elizabeth McLafferty

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Cosmetics and Skin Care

Brian Moeran and Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Within the area of dress, defined as body supplements and body modification according to Joanne Eicher’s terminology, cosmetics and skin care are a subgroup of nonpermanent body modifications. Admittedly, the issue of permanence is relative; antiwrinkle cream, for example, is intended to have an enduring effect. Also, in some cases, permanent and nonpermanent treatments are interchangeable; skin bleaching or tattoos can replace makeup, and hair removal can be temporary or permanent.

Senegal and Gambia

Hudita Nura Mustafa

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The location of Senegambia between the Sahara Desert, Atlantic Ocean, and West African savannas makes it a prime spot for cross-cultural exchange. The region consists of two nation-states—Senegal (a French colony 1890 to 1960) and Gambia (a British colony 1888 to 1965)—marked by millennia of shared history, culture, and geography. The area is in turn part of the larger subregion of the Sahel, formed from medieval African empires and formerly (mostly) French, Portuguese, and British colonial state

African American

Gwendolyn S. O’Neal

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Inarguably, the dress practices of many African Americans differ from those of the dominant culture. African American dress practices are both complex and diverse and are rooted in a cultural aesthetic that can be called neither African nor American. The forced symbiosis of African and American culture produced a group of people the civil rights leader W.E.B. DuBois characterized as having a “double consciousness”—a sense of being neither fully American nor fully African. The competing systems of

Cosmetics, Western

Kathy Peiss

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, European women prepared simple cosmetics from recipes appearing in household manuals and cookbooks or passed on orally from generation to generation. In that period, cosmetics were as much science as art, a branch of self-help therapeutics that women were expected to master. Recipes in early household manuals called for roots, wild-flowers, and other plants to be mixed with water, beer, vinegar, and spices; these produced remedies to clear the complexi

Fitrah: Temporary and Permanent Body Modifications for Muslims

Irvin Cemil Schick

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The term fitrah, a precise equivalent for which does not exist in English, has been variously translated as that which is innate or instinctive, is determined by nature, derives from creation, or is in accordance with the true faith, which is Islam. The concept of fitrah is sometimes applied to the human body; namely, what people are allowed or not allowed to do with it. It is related, for example, that the Prophet Mohammed said that the five practices that are characteristic of fitrah are circum

Cosmetics: Makeup in North America

Shari Sims

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

While ancient Egyptian women may have lavished on the eyeliner and African and South American tribes had rich histories of painting their faces for ceremonial occasions, makeup did not really become fully acceptable in North America until the beginning of the twentieth century. Using patent creams and lotions for perfecting one’s complexion was one thing, but “painting” one’s face was frowned on in polite society. Yet in true American expansionism, within a small space of years, a multitude of th

Estée Lauder—Cosmetics Pioneer

Shari Sims

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

From its beginnings as a one-woman enterprise producing skin creams, the Estée Lauder Company evolved into a multinational mega cosmetics company by the twenty-first century. “Mrs. Lauder”—as she was always referred to within the company—built a business that both reflected her own image and went on to encompass the images of multiple generations of women (including those inspired by members of her own family and the grand dames of New York City society). The company expanded to include different

The Beauty Blogosphere

Shari Sims

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Women have sought advice—from each other, from experts, from style setters, from servants to the stars—for as long as they have decorated their appearance using cosmetics. Non-Western women passed down traditions from one generation to another; in the twenty-first century, social media have literally upended traditions while helping to create new ones. There are hundreds of beauty blogs (some estimate at least four hundred) in addition to the active Web sites of women’s magazines and cosmetics co

Ethics and Industry

Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The question of ethics is about determining concepts of right and wrong human action. There are a number of ethical controversies in relation to the industries that dress the visible self, especially the clothing, shoes, accessories, and skin-care industries. The five main areas of controversy are, first, representations of idealized gender and body images; second, fakes and counterfeits of branded goods; third, working conditions; fourth, environmental impact and sustainability; and fifth, anima

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