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Carven

Stephanie Edith Herold

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Viktor & Rolf

Aimee Scott

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Paco Rabanne

Daphne Stylianou

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Rei Kawakubo and Comme des Garçons

Bonnie English

Source: Japanese Fashion Designers. The Work and Influence of Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo 2011

Book chapter

Vera Mackie (2003: 144)… women [in Japan] were condemned to be ‘mothers’ or ‘whores’.

Omani Dress

Julia M. Al-Zadjali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The English-speaking travelers of the past referred to Oman as the hidden corner of Arabia, yet Oman was and remains well known to its neighbors. It has an elaborate and rich history in the region, and the striking similarities to Oman’s neighbors that are found in dress throughout the country suggest that Oman has experienced many cultural, trade, and economic friendships over the centuries, which have left their mark. It is only in the early twenty-first century that attention is being paid to

Perfume and Incense

Julia Al-Zadjali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The use of perfumes is widespread throughout the Middle East. Throughout the Arab world a wide variety of spices, aromatic woods, flowers, seeds, and plants, such as ginger, pepper, and sandalwood are used for incense and perfumes. Many of these come from India. The essential oils from these sources are very important ingredients for both incenses (bakhoor) and perfumes. Sold at various prices, it is generally agreed that the more one pays for such an oil, the finer it is. For thousands of years

The Erotic in Indian Dress

Jasleen Dhamija

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Studies of Indian dress seldom address the topic of its inherent erotic quality, particularly in women’s dress. In fact, for Indian women the notion of being well dressed means dressing in a pleasing manner—a manner that will give pleasure. This aim guides their aesthetic choices: their selection of fabrics and the way in which they are draped; the addition of details, such as jewelry or fragrant flowers; and other means of embellishment, such as painting the body with henna, the red pigment call

Perfume

Annette Green

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fragrance and fashion were linked for the first time in the thirteenth century. The setting was Grasse, France (located between Nice and Cannes) that at the time was the center of the glove-making industry. The problem these artisans faced, however, was the unbearable smell of the leather that was tanned with urine.

Perfumed Dress and Textiles

Katia Johansen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Perfumed dress and textiles are standard in every culture, yet virtually none have been preserved. Fragrances were once considered to be the souls of objects and therefore sacred. Incense, used worldwide in religious ceremonies, is often noticeable on vestments. Perfuming was used to mask bad odors, for ceremonies, or simply for appeal. Perfuming methods included using incense, sweet bags, oils, and fuming pans. Perfume is generally made of the volatile oils of plants, grasses, spices, herbs, woo

The Bulgarian Rose Oil Industry

Brian Moeran

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Bulgarian rose refers primarily to the damask rose (Rosa damascena), grown along the upper, south-facing valleys between Karlovo and Kazanlak in central Bulgaria. The oil that it produces is known as “liquid gold,” since it costs more than three times its equivalent weight in gold. Rose oil is a main ingredient in three-quarters of all modern prestige perfumes. Turkey was the leader in rose culture beginning in at least the first century c.e., and the spread of the Ottoman Empire into East Eu

Fragrances and Perfumes

Brian Moeran

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The development of modern perfume may be traced to the court of Louis XIV (1643–1715), whose palace at Versailles had no bathrooms. Quantities of perfume were used at court, primarily to mask odors. In the fifth century, an Arab perfumer, Avicenna, had pioneered the distillation of rose water. Arab perfumers established businesses in Granada, and from the eleventh century onwards, the crusaders brought back knowledge of Oriental fragrances to Europe. The first alcohol-based eau de toilette was l’

Cosmetics and Skin Care

Brian Moeran and Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Within the area of dress, defined as body supplements and body modification according to Joanne Eicher’s terminology, cosmetics and skin care are a subgroup of nonpermanent body modifications. Admittedly, the issue of permanence is relative; antiwrinkle cream, for example, is intended to have an enduring effect. Also, in some cases, permanent and nonpermanent treatments are interchangeable; skin bleaching or tattoos can replace makeup, and hair removal can be temporary or permanent.

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Persons

Andrew Reilly

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Reliable information about dress in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT) community has become available only recently. For many years negative attitudes held by much of the non-LGBT population resulted in beliefs and stereotypes that were often superficial and inaccurate. Research into the dress of members of the LGBT community is now providing a more detailed and nuanced view of the subject. When a person “comes out” or acknowledges an LGBT identity, it is often a mixed blessing;

Fitrah: Temporary and Permanent Body Modifications for Muslims

Irvin Cemil Schick

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The term fitrah, a precise equivalent for which does not exist in English, has been variously translated as that which is innate or instinctive, is determined by nature, derives from creation, or is in accordance with the true faith, which is Islam. The concept of fitrah is sometimes applied to the human body; namely, what people are allowed or not allowed to do with it. It is related, for example, that the Prophet Mohammed said that the five practices that are characteristic of fitrah are circum

Iranian Urban Dress

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The nineteenth century in Iran was a period of dramatic changes with respect to urban dress; the style of garments worn at the beginning of the century was totally different from that at the end and in the following era. A major factor in this change were the policies of Westernization followed by Iranian rulers from the early nineteenth century on. Under Mohammed Shah (r. 1834–1848), for instance, the British military specialist Sir Henry Rawlinson was employed to modernize the Iranian army on E

The Role of Scents and the Body in Turkey

Marlene R. Breu

Source: Dress Sense. Emotional and Sensory Experiences of the Body and Clothes 2007

Book chapter

The chemical response of smell, and the closely related sense of taste, allows us to experience our environment. Like other animals, our sense of smell provides a warning system of impending danger or alerts us to such things as the approach of a storm, overripe foods, the presence of poor quality air, or the onslaught of an illness. According to Gibbons, this practice was used prior to modern sophisticated methods of health care (1986). Evidence exists from antiquity of the use of scents for mag

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Negotiating Fluffy Femininities

Samantha Holland

Source: Alternative Femininities. Body, Age and Identity 2004

Book chapter

This, the first empirical chapter, examines how the participants talked about traditional femininity and their relationships to it, and the many contradictions highlighted by their discussion. This is established by asking: how the women in this study defined femininity; whom they named as being traditionally feminine; what they used which they considered to be typically feminine; and how they felt this ‘placed’ them within a continuum of femininity. The central focus of this chapter is on the wa

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