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Subcultural Body Style History

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

From the time we are born, the human body is modified for physical, spiritual, psychological, social, and cultural transformations. In fact, prehistoric mummies found in recent years suggest that body practices, modifications, associated supplements, and rituals were significant in the earliest of human cultures (Winge 2003). In 1991 a frozen Stone Age male mummy was found in the Ötztal Alps. Nicknamed Ötzi, this mummy shows evidence of possibly the earliest body modifications ever discovered. Re

Future of Subcultural Body Style

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

Many Western subcultures contribute to and influence contemporary examples of fashion. The Hippie subculture influenced numerous fashion trends, such as embroidered jeans, shawls, and use of the peace symbol. The Punk subculture is credited with many 1980s fashion trends, such as distressed jeans, safety pin accessories, and band buttons or pins. During the past few decades, the Urban Tribal movement influenced contemporary body fashions with the use and display of body modifications, technologie

Dress of the Cook Islands

Kalissa Alexeyeff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Cook Islands dress of the twenty-first century is a vibrant mixture of local, Western, and regional influences. Traces of the islands’ missionary and colonial history are also evident and reflect an ongoing incorporation of external styles and aesthetics. Since the Cook Islands gained independence in 1965, the revival of local dress practices of the past has been viewed as an important way of forging an independent nation-state. Traditional dress, primarily worn in performance contexts in the ear

Lower Niger Delta Peoples and Diaspora

Martha G. Anderson and E. J. Alagoa

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The inhabitants of the Niger Delta speak dozens of languages and represent nine different language groups. Populations range in size from the Ijo, a diverse group of about two million who live in communities spread throughout the Delta, to the Defaka, who number only about two hundred and occupy a single village. Larger groups include the Urhobo, Isoko, Itsekiri, Ikwerre, Ekpeye, Ogoni, and Obolo (or Andoni). Most Delta groups have maintained their own languages and distinct identities, but they

Dress in New Caledonia

Frédéric Angleviel

Translated by Marissa Dooris

Vikram Iyer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

New Caledonia, situated in the southwest Pacific Ocean, comprises a number of islands including the Loyalty Islands, Isle des Pins, and Isle Bélep. The warm climate and tropical vegetation have had a substantial influence on what the inhabitants have worn and do wear. In the past the indigenous people of New Caledonia, the Melanesian Kanaks, embellished their bodies in various ways. Subsequently, evangelical missionaries urged these people to hide their bodies. In the twenty-first century consume

Hawaiian Dress Prior to 1898

Linda Boynton Arthur

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Hawai’i is an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean, a chain referred to simply as Hawai’i or the Hawaiian Islands. The six major islands are Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, and the Big Island, that is, Hawai’i. The latter name is rarely used, in order to reduce confusion, since Hawai’i (the archipelago) became an American state in 1959. Until the late eighteenth century the peoples who inhabited these islands shared a common culture, although they were somewhat divided politically in that each had

Moko Māori: Skin Modification

Ngahuia Te Awekotuku, Linda Waimarie Nikora and Mohi Robert Rua

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Māori people settled Aotearoa (New Zealand) from the islands of the eastern Pacific, coming in successive waves over many centuries. They brought with them the languages, music, belief systems, and technologies of their cultures of origin. They also brought the practice of permanent skin modification. Tattoo chisels similar to those used in western Polynesia have been found in some of the earliest excavations. With the new environment came new resources: massive hardwood forests, nephrite and

Morocco

Cynthia J. Becker

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Morocco has long been a crossroads between Europe, the Middle East, and sub-Saharan Africa, and dress reflects the richness of its history as well as its geographic and cultural diversity. Forty to sixty percent of the Moroccan population is Berber, and many Berbers have retained their indigenous language. After the Phoenicians and then the Romans settled in Morocco and encountered the Berbers, Arabs moved into Morocco in the seventh century, founding the city of Fes and gradually converting the

Dress of Vanuatu

Lissant Bolton and Jean Tarisesei

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Vanuatu is an archipelago of about eighty small islands in the southwestern Pacific. It is one of the most linguistically complex regions of the world: More than 113 languages are spoken in these islands by a population (at the start of the twenty-first century) of about 200,000. This linguistic diversity is matched by cultural diversity: Not just every island, but every district has had its own distinctive knowledge and practice, and often, its own distinctive dress styles. This diversity from p

The Northwest Coast

Kathryn B. Bunn-Marcuse

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Pacific Northwest Coast has long been known for its elaborate and distinctive art styles. This attention to form and expression is no less true for clothing, especially ceremonial clothing, than for totem poles and masks. On the Northwest Coast clothing conveys identity, status, and wealth among its indigenous people, wrapping wearers in their clan and familial identities. Today, this is most clearly seen in ceremonial regalia worn on important public occasions; but dress has always provided

Rites of Passage and Ritual Traditions of the Shan

Susan Conway

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Shan State is bordered by China, Tibet, Laos, and Thailand. The Shan belong to the Tai ethnic groups. Their rulers came from prominent local families, but they usually had to present tribute payments to more powerful monarchs. The major Shan religion is Theravada Buddhism, which assimilated ancient spirit religions. The Shan make textiles and cultivate cotton. They have for centuries imported Chinese and Burmese raw silk and other luxury fabrics. Exotic court dress identified rulers with the gods

Li National Minority

Anne Csete

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Li national minority of Hainan Island, with a population of 1.24 million, is officially divided into five subgroups: Qi, Ha, Sai, Run, and Meifu. Li dress varies among these subgroups, but common elements include a sarong-like tube skirt, female tattooing, and methods of traditional cloth production. Han cloth and thread were incorporated into Li weaving and embroidery by at least the Song dynasty (960–1279), when significant numbers of Li began to adopt Chinese dress and customs. Li weaving

Ainu

Chisato O. Dubreuil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Ainu, the indigenous people of Japan, live throughout Japan, but most are concentrated on the northernmost island of Hokkaido (formally known as Ezo). The definition of the word Ainu is “the people” or “humans.” Their homeland, Ainu-mosir (the Land of Humans), originally included southern Sakhalin, the lower Amur River region, the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kurile Islands, Hokkaido, and at least the Tohoku region of Japan’s main island, Honshū. While there are no known full-

Fijian Dress and Body Modifications

Roderick Ewins

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Geographically, Fiji sits where the arbitrarily defined three triangles of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia intersect, and it shares many cultural elements with its neighbors on all sides, though Polynesian elements predominate. Bodywear has always been strongly differentiated in terms of age, gender, and social status. Nineteenth-century Christian missionary and colonial government intervention altered every aspect of custom, including bodywear. Items with any symbolic connection with the ol

Distinctive Dress of the Nazi Party

Mark Gudgel

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

This article addresses the significance and distinct aspects of uniform and dress in Nazi Germany (1933–1945), specifically related to the organization and membership of the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, the NSDAP or Nazi party. The Nazi entity is kept distinct from that of other German organizations that existed during that period to which non-Nazi German civilians may have belonged, as well as from the various branches of the German military which were populated with a very lo

Body Modification in Thailand: Tattooing

Deborah Hill

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Modern tattoo studios are common in Thailand in the early twenty-first century; at these establishments one can acquire a tattoo that is administered using a mechanized needle and contemporary designs. Distinct from this practice, however, is an art form involving an older tradition and using distinctive tools and empowered designs. Tattooing, known as sak yan—sak meaning “to tattoo” and yan referring to yantra, a symbol of spiritual significance, usually containing magical properties—is common i

Subcultural and Alternative Dress in Australia

Glynis Jones

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

From the beginning of European settlement in New South Wales in 1788, Australians were using alternative forms of dress, body decoration, and modification, visibly expressing individual and collective identities, aesthetic codes, values, beliefs, and cultural experiences different from the dominant culture. Some developed personal style statements, and others have been part of collective subcultural expressions linked to interests, lifestyles, and philosophies. Most have been youth-generated, chi

Introduction to the Dress of the Pacific Islands

Adrienne L. Kaeppler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Pacific Ocean covers one-third of the earth’s surface and is inhabited by hundreds of cultural groups. Some twenty-five thousand islands, ranging from tiny specks of coral to the large island of New Guinea, are occupied by physically diverse peoples, many of whom have mixed and intermixed. Environments range from snowy mountains to raging volcanoes, from steaming rain forests to parched deserts, from coral atolls to volcanic outcrops. These Pacific Islands are usually divided into three histo

Overview of the Ryūkyūs

Kristine M. Kamiya

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The 160 islands of the Ryūkyū archipelago extend from the southern shores of Japan to Taiwan. The forty-nine inhabited islands are divided into groups: Okinawa, Miyako, Yaeyama, Senkaku, and Daito. Inhabited for at least thirty thousand years, most of their history involved being caught in power struggles between China and Japan, then between Japan and the United States. Ryūkyūan dress is regularly overlooked as having specific identity, possibly partly because the traditional ryūsō (robe), is co

Tahitian Tattoos

Makiko Kuwahara

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Tatau is permanent tattoo marking on the body, a term used here to describe Tahitian tattoo motifs. The term tattoo refers to Euro-American tattoos and the process of making these designs. As it is significant for Tahitians to differentiate their motifs from others, the terms tatau and tattoo are both used, and the term tatau/tattoo will indicate traditional motifs made with Western methods. Once a person puts ink on the skin, he or she will live with the motifs, designs, or words that the ink de

Dressing the Body in Samoa

Sean Mallon

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Samoa consists of two large tropical islands and six smaller ones in the Pacific Ocean, northeast of Fiji. Its people are of Polynesian descent, and the islands have had a complex history of regional interaction. The tropical environment furnished flora and fauna utilized by the people of these islands for the construction of clothing and body modifications. During the nineteenth century dressing the body involved not only covering with garments but also marking or coloring the skin, wrapping it

Bilas: Dressing the Body in Papua New Guinea

Michael Mel

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Papua New Guinea is a nation of some six million people in the twenty-first century and lies at the western end of the Pacific Ocean, north of Australia. It is the eastern half of the whole island of New Guinea, which is the second-largest island in the world after Greenland. It gained political independence from Australia in 1975. The nation has always both intrigued and fascinated people with one unusual factor: There are over eight hundred distinct languages spoken. This is an indication of th

The Significance of Numbers in Dress

Phyllis Bell Miller

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Throughout history and across various cultures, numbers have played various roles in dress. They may identify a person’s marital status, social standing, economic situation, age, gender, religion, political orientation, and other factors. Numbers related to dress may also protect an individual from evil forces or attract benevolent spirits. In addition, numbers have been used as a tool in textile design since ancient times, allowing the observer to make sense of patterns and motifs. Thus, numbers

Ethnic Dress and Adornment of the Dayaks of Sabah, Sarawak, and Kalimantan

Edric Ong

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Colonizers used the term Dayak for non-Islamic indigenous peoples of Borneo, divided into Sarawak and Sabah, the two East Malaysian states, and Kalimantan in Indonesia and Brunei. It is less used now, as ethnic groups wish to be identified by their own names. The oral history of the indigenous peoples of Sarawak, Sabah, and Kalimantan is rich in myths closely related to textiles, dress, and ornaments. The Iban, comprising 30 percent of the state’s population, have one of the richest textile tradi

Fang of Equatorial Guinea and Gabon

Louis P. Perrois

Translated by Francine Farr

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Fang of equatorial Africa dazzled all who crossed their path of east-to-west migration toward the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Guinea that ended in the early twentieth century. In 1843, U.S. pastor John Wilson noted, as quoted inMerlet’sLe pays des trois estuaires, 1471–1900, that they were “naked except for a bark loincloth …. Their hair hangs in braids. They carry knives, spears, and many iron objects they make themselves.” In 1847, French naval lieutenant Méquet, plying the Como River on the

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