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Individualizing Japanese Student Uniforms

Brian J. McVeigh

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In some cultures, sociopolitical environments encourage theatricality, rituality, and selves that are self-consciously performed, so that the bifurcation of the self into genuine expressions and social masks is more salient. The reasons behind this “splitting of the self” vary from place to place and from period to period. In any case, the need to separate the personal self from the public persona, backstage orchestrations from front-stage performances, and behind-the-curtains from before-the-foo

Antifashion in East Asian Dress: Power of Uniforms

Brian J. McVeigh

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion in East Asia reveals historical trajectories following the same path as Euro–American modernities. Modernization underpins the fashion-oriented consumerism visible today in Japan, China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, accounting for the interplay between fashion, counter-fashion, and antifashion. Counter-fashion is concerned with an interest in change and avant-garde styles. It may be associated with dissent, protest, or ridicule. Antifashion (commonly confused with counter-fashion) means styles

Muslim Dress and the Head-Scarf Debate

Annelies Moors

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Debates about the presence of students wearing head scarves in public schools in West Europe started in the late 1980s; about a decade later, the employment of women wearing head scarves also became the focus of attention. These debates need to be seen within a context in which a new generation of Muslims (often second-generation migrants) started to enter the educational system and then the labor market. As new Muslim citizens, these young men and women have increasingly become socially and poli

Children’s Clothes

Viveka Berggren Torell

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The notion that children represent the future has influenced children’s dress for a long time. During the Enlightenment, childhood started to be seen as an important, separate period in a person’s life that ought to be devoted to a playful existence. At that time, philosophers advocated clothes allowing free movement of the body, to make it possible for children to develop according to their “inner path” and thereby become sensible adults. These ideas later reverberated in the twentieth century,

School Uniforms in New Zealand

Elaine Webster

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

New Zealand has a strong and continuing tradition of school uniform in secondary (high) schools. Nearly everyone going to school in New Zealand since the 1940s wore a uniform for between five and thirteen of their formative years, although their experiences are likely to have been different from those of their parents and the next generation. The meanings and the functions of school uniforms are culturally and historically specific, and in New Zealand they altered considerably over the twentieth

Military and Civil Uniforms in Australia

Craig Wilcox

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Lacking the powerful and intimidating presence exerted in authoritarian and militaristic societies, uniforms have nonetheless been ubiquitous in Australia for the past two hundred years. A large minority of men have worn them since the 1860s, if only for a few hours a week as citizen soldiers or volunteer firefighters. In the 1940s a significant minority of women and the majority of children began to wear uniforms too, the former in the military or at work, the latter in school. The first uniform

Girls’ Uniforms in Greek Schools

Artemis Yagou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The transformations of school dress provide crucial indicators of society’s attitudes toward children and young people. In Greek schools, girls’ uniforms have played a major role in the production and reproduction of social order and the control of female bodies following dominant, authoritarian mentalities. However, girls’ uniforms have also incorporated a range of other meanings, including transgression, fashionability, as well as nostalgia, and these meanings continue to evolve into the twenty

School Uniforms and Docile Bodies

Jennifer Craik

Source: Uniforms Exposed. From Conformity to Transgression 2005

Book chapter

This chapter is concerned with the role of school uniforms in shaping the self to create conditions for the habitus of the docile body.Docile here is used in its traditional OED sense: teachable, submissive, tractable and easily managed – not just passive but primed (ready and alert) for instruction. Of course, not all schools or school systems have a school uniform, suggesting that school uniforms are part of a particular pedagogic approach to teaching and learning in certain cultural contexts,

School Uniforms as a Symbolic Metaphor For Competing Ideologies in Indonesia

Linda B. Arthur

Source: Undressing Religion. Commitment and Conversion from a Cross-Cultural Perspective 2000

Book chapter

In a metaphorical sense, dress and dressing are themes relevant to a wider set of related phenomena. Nation-states dress themselves not only through uniforms, but also by way of architecture, street names, postage stamps, monuments and rituals (Nordholt, 1997).

Learning to Wear Ideology: School Uniforms

Brian J. McVeigh

Source: Wearing Ideology. State, Schooling and Self-Presentation in Japan 2000

Book chapter

Most nursery schools, kindergartens, elementary, middle and high schools have student uniforms (gakusei fuku) (or at least regulations about attire). Uniforms are intended to provide order, discipline and solidarity within a school. Other examples of material culture that express “school spirit” (kôfû) are school pins (kôshô) and, of course, school uniforms (kôfuku). Likewise, nursery schools, kindergartens and some elementary schools mandate seibô (school cap; literally, “regulation cap”). Some

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