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Keep Smiling Through: Good Health and Natural Beauty

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Body and Dress

Angela Durante and Jenny Ellison

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

All human cultures engage in some form of dress and adornment. Although our bodies and the items we put on them might appear to be separate, they in fact have a great deal in common and are considerably intertwined. A dressed body represents a complex set of negotiations between an individual, the fashion system, and the social context in which they exist. Codes of dress set parameters but do not entirely determine how individuals dress. The body and dress are mutually constitutive—dress adds soc

Underwear

Grace Evans

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The fashionable silhouette has gone through bewildering changes during the last two hundred years, and these would not have been possible without the shapes created beneath. Underwear and outerwear progressed in tandem. Underwear designers responded to prevailing styles of fashionable dress, and fashion designers built and relied upon the capabilities of structural underpinnings as they developed. These changes were, in turn, influenced by key social, economic, and technological developments, whi

Health

Jane Farrell-Beck

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In most environments on Earth, clothing provides needed protection from the elements and other hazards. Yet over the past two centuries, dress has been vilified as the source of disease and death or lauded as a device for improving health and physical vigor. Writers have often directed their prescriptions and proscriptions toward women’s dress, but they also critiqued men’s and children’s apparel. An early health concern was problems and solutions connected to microbes and dermatological hazards,

Care and Maintenance

Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Translated by Stig Erik Sørheim

Kjetil Enstad

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Care and maintenance are important for both durability and appearance of clothes. Historically, clothing and textiles have been among the most precious possessions of a household, and extensive repairs and careful maintenance were worthwhile. Many people owned only one set of clothes; in poor families, the mother stayed up past bedtime because repairs had to be made when the clothes had been taken off for the night. Even for better-off women, mending and patching were everyday tasks. They have be

Fragrances and Perfumes

Brian Moeran

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The development of modern perfume may be traced to the court of Louis XIV (1643–1715), whose palace at Versailles had no bathrooms. Quantities of perfume were used at court, primarily to mask odors. In the fifth century, an Arab perfumer, Avicenna, had pioneered the distillation of rose water. Arab perfumers established businesses in Granada, and from the eleventh century onwards, the crusaders brought back knowledge of Oriental fragrances to Europe. The first alcohol-based eau de toilette was l’

Cosmetics and Skin Care

Brian Moeran and Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Within the area of dress, defined as body supplements and body modification according to Joanne Eicher’s terminology, cosmetics and skin care are a subgroup of nonpermanent body modifications. Admittedly, the issue of permanence is relative; antiwrinkle cream, for example, is intended to have an enduring effect. Also, in some cases, permanent and nonpermanent treatments are interchangeable; skin bleaching or tattoos can replace makeup, and hair removal can be temporary or permanent.

Fitrah: Temporary and Permanent Body Modifications for Muslims

Irvin Cemil Schick

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The term fitrah, a precise equivalent for which does not exist in English, has been variously translated as that which is innate or instinctive, is determined by nature, derives from creation, or is in accordance with the true faith, which is Islam. The concept of fitrah is sometimes applied to the human body; namely, what people are allowed or not allowed to do with it. It is related, for example, that the Prophet Mohammed said that the five practices that are characteristic of fitrah are circum

Dress Reform

Kristina Stankovski

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the years following the English Civil War of 1642, various influential clothing-reform movements flourished. One of the nonconformist groups that emerged during this time was the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers. The group’s founder, George Fox, established a set of social practices that were based on Christian ideologies and utopianism. The main thesis proposed by Fox was simplicity of appearance and lifestyle. His favor of spirituality over what he considered to be

Lord Chesterfield's Letters to His Son: The Earl of Chesterfield

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

London, November the 8th, O. S. 1750.

The Cerementing of the Gentleman

Gerald Heard

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Invisible Clothing

Philippe Perrot

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Many maladies are caused by … corsets. Thin bodies, narrow shoulders. Out of four two are bones of some promise; one, bones which promise nothing; a fourth go to Nice with the consumption; another fourth will at twenty-six drag out six days of the seven in an invalid's chair.

Head and Neck

Susan J. Vincent

Source: The Anatomy of Fashion. Dressing the Body from the Renaissance to Today 2009

Book chapter

1663. Two years after Charles II’s triumphant return as the English monarch, the unspeakable horror of the plague yet two years in the future with the Great Fire to come after that, and Samuel Pepys was facing a personal dilemma. He wanted to try wearing a wig, but lacked the resolution to cut off his hair. While two years earlier he had been very particular about how it was trimmed, ‘finding that the length of it doth become me very much’, by May 1663 he was experiencing such difficulty keeping

The Big Shave: Modernity and Fashions in Men’s Facial Hair

Dene October

Source: Hair. Styling, Culture and Fashion 2008

Book chapter

Fashions in men’s facial hair come and go in response to changes in the wider social and cultural historical environment. From the middle of the nineteenth century, the traditional beard, whilst still maintaining an iconic power which continued to be exploited to visually confer age and wisdom (Cooper 1971: 134), as well as social status and military power, was gradually superseded by various alternative fashions in facial hair. According to Peterkin, ‘the 19th century proved to be a complete hey

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