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Talitha Getty

Osman Ahmed

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Talitha Dina Pol (1940–1971) was born in Bali. After moving to London in 1945, following a traumatic period spent with her birth mother in a Japanese POW camp, Talitha studied at Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts with hopes of becoming an actress. Young, beautiful, and exotic, she was courted and celebrated by London society, becoming the second wife of John Paul Getty Jnr., the son of oil tycoon Paul Getty, in 1966. She wore an all-white, mink-trimmed, hooded minidress that echoed the height of Swi

Dsquared2

Paula Alaszkiewicz

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Gianfranco Ferré

Giulia Bussinello

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Vivienne Westwood, “Anglomania,” Fall/Winter 1993–1994

Hayley-Jane Edwards-Dujardin

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

From being queen of punk in the mid-1970s, Vivienne Westwood slightly moved, from the 1980s, to being a supporter of British fashion’s establishment. Inspired by traditional craftsmanship and eighteenth-century art, the designer has since infused her collections with historicism. With her fall/winter 1993–1994 “Anglomania” show, Vivienne Westwood epitomized her interest in English and Scottish traditions while mingling masculine tailoring with outrageously feminine forms. Featuring laced bodices,

Fur and Feathers

Jonathan Faiers

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Clothing made from animal skins and the plumage of birds provides some of the earliest examples of the human desire to adorn the body. From ancient history to the present day, furs and feathers have kept us warm, signaled our wealth and status, and made us feel protected and powerful, sensual and stunning. Yet the use of fur and feathers is also deeply controversial and has been the subject of legislation, prohibition, and outrage unlike any other aspect of the fashion industry. From mink to mara

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Fendi, Fall/Winter 1985

Alexis Romano

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

By the time of Fendi’s fall/winter 1985 collection, the brand was an important feature of the globally renowned, flourishing 1980s Italian fashion landscape, yet it also retained its original status as one of the traditional accessories brands that had helped shape Italy’s classification as a historic center of artisanal, high-quality craftsmanship. Directed by Karl Lagerfeld, who had been at the helm since 1965, and in keeping with Fendi’s heritage and identity, the thread throughout the collect

Givenchy Couture, Fall/Winter 1988

Aimee Williams

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

The year 1988 marked major events for Givenchy. In June, French conglomerate Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessey (LVMH) acquired Givenchy’s couture line. Hubert de Givenchy received his Lifetime Achievement award in October. The fall/winter collection’s focal points were texture and color. Rich greens, purples, and crimson saturated fluid fabrics like satin, velvet, and silk, with matching dyed mink, beaver, and fox coats and stoles. Large dyed feathers made an impact in evening wear, affixed to floor-l

Givenchy Couture, Fall/Winter 1983

Aimee Williams

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Givenchy’s well-received fall/winter 1983 couture collection augured the opulence of the decade. Lavish surfeit came in many options for patrons, from jewel-encrusted leather boleros and skirt suits trimmed with mink and fox fur for day, to sequined metallic gowns for evening. Suede and leather gloves and hats and oversized jewels accessorized hand-painted silk skirts and dresses. The chemise and the hourglass shape prevailed. The former figure came in a range of sumptuous textiles, corresponding

Aboriginal Skin Cloaks

Fabri Blacklock

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In customary societies Aboriginal people were minimally clothed until contact with Europeans began to alter their habits. One exception was the skin cloaks widely worn by men and women throughout temperate zones of southeastern and western Australia. Cloaks were their main article of dress, important as rugs for warmth, but also for ceremonial use, trade, and as burial shrouds. Indigenous peoples made a variety of cloaks from different types of skin: possums, kangaroos, wallabies, and other fur-b

Siberia

Cunera Buijs

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The northern Asiatic continent, at some four-and-a-half million square miles (twelve million square kilometers), has twenty-five million inhabitants who belong to twenty-six different peoples. The clothing traditions among these groups vary greatly, because they were adapted to diverse natural environments, regional conditions, and the availability of materials. Their development was also influenced by economic structures as well as cultural and historical factors. Such foreign materials as silk

Greenland

Cunera Buijs

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The extremes of the Arctic climate set Greenland dress apart from dress in the rest of West Europe. It is made from the skins and furs of animals and birds and is highly adapted to the conditions and lifestyle of the Arctic people. Even so there are distinctive regional dress cultures of the West Greenlanders (Kilaamiut), Northwest Greenlanders (Inughuit), and East Greenlanders (Tunumiit). It was only in the twentieth century that the dress of Greenlanders began to be influenced by dress in the r

Fur

Julia Emberley

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the Middle Ages the exclusivity of some furs meant that they were used sparingly. The practice of “purfling” was invented in which the more expensive furs were reserved for decorative trim, while cheaper furs were used to finish the lining. There are some examples of excessive expenditures on the part of nobles such as Charles VI of France who apparently used 20,000 squirrel pelts to line a garment. It was not until the fur trade was established in the sixteenth century between France, and the

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Namibia

Hildi Hendrickson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Namibia, the oldest indigenous forms of dress were made from the leather hides of wild and domesticated animals, decorated with shell and locally made metal beads. Before the Colonial period, differing cultural groups and social subgroups distinguished themselves through formalized yet highly inventive hairstyles, headgear, and types of tooth modification. Cloth dress was slowly introduced via Europeans and was adopted in uneven ways. Some indigenous people began wearing cloth early in the Col

Sámi

Desiree Koslin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sápmi, the Subarctic region of North Europe and West Russia, is home to the Sámi people, estimated to be a population of about seventy-five thousand to eighty-five thousand in the early twenty-first century. Distinctive dress is an important marker of Sámi identity. Traditional Sámi dress shares many features with other Arctic and Subarctic peoples. Garments and footwear were made from the furs, skins, sinews, and organs of mammals, birds, and fish. Current Sámi festive dress is a source of pride

Denmark

Marie Riegels Melchior

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In terms of dress and fashion, Denmark is an example of a peripheral West European country within the international fashion system. Since the Middle Ages, new fashions have found their way to Denmark through the internationally oriented royal family, the purchases of well-traveled citizens, various international and national fashion reports, and international purchases by local retailers. With varying speed, new cuts, colors, and styles have impressed themselves upon both the everyday and festive

The Arctic

Birgit Pauksztat

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In an environment where temperatures are below freezing for much of the year, appropriate clothing is vital. For the native peoples of Arctic North America, until about the mid-twentieth century, survival largely depended on women’s skills to create clothing that provides insulation against the cold and protection from snow, ice, and water. At the same time, the garments are lightweight and durable, and their designs provide the freedom of movement required for carrying out everyday activities.

Fur

Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fur comes from animal pelts that are chemically treated to make the leather supple and retain the hairs, which consist of guard hairs and underwool. Although furs come from many different animals, the most common in the twenty-first century are mink and fox. Fur has been appreciated for two outstanding qualities: warmth, essential in cold climates, and appearance, which accounts for its association with ostentation and prestige dressing. Comfort and durability have also made fur garments and acce

Ethics and Industry

Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The question of ethics is about determining concepts of right and wrong human action. There are a number of ethical controversies in relation to the industries that dress the visible self, especially the clothing, shoes, accessories, and skin-care industries. The five main areas of controversy are, first, representations of idealized gender and body images; second, fakes and counterfeits of branded goods; third, working conditions; fourth, environmental impact and sustainability; and fifth, anima

Shared and Unique Traditions and Practices

Joyce M. Szabo

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Whether for everyday wear or special occasions, clothing throughout native North America reflects many important aspects of the lives of the people who made and wore these garments and body adornments in the past. Contemporary clothing incorporates the same styles found throughout North America and the Westernized world in general, but ceremonial attire still differs markedly. Clothing sends clear messages about those people who wear it; contemporary clothing styles attest to the survival of nati

Royal Dress Preserved at the Topkapi Museum

Hülya Tezcan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Topkapi Palace is home to an opulent collection of 1,550 garments of historical Ottoman apparel. The existence of this collection arises from a palace tradition whereby when a sultan or (male) member of the immediate court died, his clothes were removed for safekeeping and placed in protective wrappers. The collection begins with kaftans belonging to Fatih Sultan Mehmed (Mehmed the Conqueror, 1451–1481), and it ends with garments owned by the last sultan, Mehmet Reşad in the early twentieth c

The Subarctic

Judy Thompson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing was a fundamental and striking feature of the cultures of the Algonquian and Athapaskan peoples of the Subarctic region of North America when Europeans first encountered them in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. Garments made from tanned animal hides afforded protection against a harsh northern environment; beautifully decorated with porcupine quillwork, fringes, and earth pigments, they also provided an important outlet for artistic expression, signified ethnic ident

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