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Jewelry of Malaysia

Mohammed Kassim Bin Haji Ali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Beads were one of the earliest forms of manufactured body ornaments worn by indigenous groups in Malaysia. Some beads found in Borneo can be dated to the Metal Age. Earlier glass and stone beads that came from as far away as Egypt and Mesopotamia through bartering have become very valuable and are much sought after in the early twenty-first century; in earlier times they were sometimes used as currency. The ancient tradition remains strong, and status and wealth are measured according to the numb

The Jewelry Industry

Carol Anne Dickson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

From early times, men and women have sought to adorn themselves. The desire to adorn the body answered several needs: communication of identity, including status and kinship, as well as symbols of protection and spiritual beliefs. The desire to express beliefs, status, and affiliations grew as the number of family members grew and the number of families who formed groups expanded. It is certain that jewelry antedates clothing. Whether it was worn for artistic display or utility, we do not know fo

Liturgical Robes in New Zealand

Sandra Heffernan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Liturgical dress worn by members of the Roman Catholic Church played an important part in daily life and religious observances, and rituals from birth to death, in colonial New Zealand. In 1838 Marist Catholic missionaries landed in the north of New Zealand, where most of the twelve Catholic mission stations were established. At this time seventy thousand Māoris were dispersed throughout the country, and there was a small European settlement of approximately twenty thousand, mostly in the ports a

Beads and Beadwork

Sandra Klopper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although today most African communities purchase locally manufactured and imported glass beads for daily and ritual use, indigenous communities originally relied on locally available materials such as seeds and ostrich eggshells or marine shells to adorn themselves and their leather garments. Recent discoveries in Morocco indicate that deliberately perforated Nassarius marine shells, some still smeared with red ochre, were manufactured eighty-two thousand years ago. Because some of these marine s

Jewelry

Gabriele Mentges

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jewelry, an anglicized version of the old French word jouel, means, in its broadest sense, body adornment. This definition is also valid for clothing, and both make the human body culturally visible. Like dress, jewelry belongs to particular cultural bodily techniques whose interpretation depends on culture, time, and space. However, clothing and jewelry differ profoundly in regard to their practices and meaning. The differences in regard to dress and jewelry concern, first, material and shape; s

Ghana

Doran H. Ross

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Modern Ghana (to be distinguished from the medieval kingdom of Ghana in Mali) is centered on the Atlantic coast of West Africa and is firmly within the tropics with its shoreline about five degrees north of the equator. The country is bordered by Togo on the east, Burkina Faso on the north, and Côte d’Ivoire on the west, and, like all countries in Africa, it shares a history of dress with its neighbors. The contemporary peoples of Ghana may be conveniently divided between the largely Muslim north

Côte d’Ivoire

Barbara Sumberg and Remi Douah

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Côte d’Ivoire, on the Gulf of Guinea, has more than sixty ethnic groups that make up the approximate population of seventeen million. The geography ranges from humid equatorial forest in the south to dry and sparsely treed savanna in the north, which has influenced the development of cloth production and dress. Iron, brass, and gold are used for jewelry. Glass beads, imported from Europe and from other places in West Africa, decorate the body as waist beads, armlets, and necklaces. Paint made fro

Ancient Peruvian Gold and Silver Jewelry: Fashion and Religion

Carole Fraresso

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Gold metalworking is a human activity that dates back to antiquity. Mining and refining gold, combining it with other metals to obtain harder or colored alloys, melting it, and forming it into outstanding objects—knowledge of these techniques contributed to increasing the value of gold and justified its use in all ancient hierarchical societies.Worldwide, gold has fascinated human beings. From Mesopotamia to Europe, to the Middle East, ancient Egypt, India, China, and Mexico, gold has been the su

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