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The Textile Cycle: From Fiber to Fashion

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The text begins with the smallest part of a textile—fiber—and follows the textile cycle through to the final step, finishing. With increasing demand for more versatile and functional fabrics, finishing and care have become major areas of interest within the textile world, unlimited in their commercial potential. For example, one segment of the textile industry is devoted to fibers and finishing processes that resist stains. In their search for more stain-resistant fabrics, researchers have develo

Fiber Classification: Natural Fibers

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Critical to the comprehensive understanding of textiles is the chemical base of each fiber. All fibers can be grouped into one of the following five chemical classifications, presented in Table 2.1.

Fiber Classification: Manufactured Fibers

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Manufactured cellulose fibers are made from plant material that is processed with chemicals. This processing causes a permanent change in the structure of the fiber. For this reason, although the fibers are made from natural ingredients, they are classified as manufactured fibers. For a list of properties appropriate to all manufactured cellulose fibers, see Table 2.2, Properties Common to All Cellulose Fibers (page 16), and Table 3.1, Properties of Individual Manufactured Fibers (pages 24–25).

Knits

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Included in this category are:

Fibers (Swatches 1-15)

Ingrid Johnson, Ajoy K. Sarkar and Allen C. Cohen

Source: J. J.Pizzuto’s Fabric Science. Swatch Kit, 11th Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Katharine Hamnett

Amber Jane Butchart

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Designer Biography

Natural and Manufactured Fibers

Ingrid Johnson, Allen C. Cohen and Ajoy K. Sarkar

Source: J.J. Pizzuto’s Fabric Science, 11th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The properties and characteristics of textile fibers form the foundation for apparel, home, or industrial applications. A fiber is viable when it possesses the desired chemical and physical attributes for a specific end use. In addition, the fiber must be able to be produced in commercial quantities and available at prices consistent with market demands.

The Utility Clothing Scheme

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Dress of Vanuatu

Lissant Bolton and Jean Tarisesei

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Vanuatu is an archipelago of about eighty small islands in the southwestern Pacific. It is one of the most linguistically complex regions of the world: More than 113 languages are spoken in these islands by a population (at the start of the twenty-first century) of about 200,000. This linguistic diversity is matched by cultural diversity: Not just every island, but every district has had its own distinctive knowledge and practice, and often, its own distinctive dress styles. This diversity from p

Belgium

Karlijn Bronselaer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Belgium played a vital role in the industrialization of the European textile industry. Belgian society changed very quickly due to industrialization during the first half of the nineteenth century. From about the 1820s on the fashionable silhouette in West Europe was the hourglass. Although the average Belgian had neither time nor money for fashion, improved production methods and sewing machines made corsets more affordable. Later, the Art Nouveau or Jugendstil movement (ca. 1890–1920), with its

Miao National Minority

Gina Corrigan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Today, the Miao ethnic minority live in southwestern China, their population totaling 8.9 million. Miao origins and migrations are controversial and poorly documented, but we know that attempts to subdue them have been difficult. Miao in remote mountain regions developed many garments, expressing cultural identity. In 2000 a book published in China illustrated 173 different styles of Miao dress. Following the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, the female population in the countryside again adopted trad

Li National Minority

Anne Csete

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Li national minority of Hainan Island, with a population of 1.24 million, is officially divided into five subgroups: Qi, Ha, Sai, Run, and Meifu. Li dress varies among these subgroups, but common elements include a sarong-like tube skirt, female tattooing, and methods of traditional cloth production. Han cloth and thread were incorporated into Li weaving and embroidery by at least the Song dynasty (960–1279), when significant numbers of Li began to adopt Chinese dress and customs. Li weaving

History of Textiles of South Asia

Jasleen Dhamija

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

South Asia’s rich cultural heritage is expressed in the continuing tradition of textiles, going back nearly five thousand years. Although silk was an important textile very early, it was cotton, cultivated in most parts of South Asia and developed as a fabric, that was probably exported to other countries. Cultivated cotton, developed in the Indian subcontinent around 3000 b.c.e., was woven throughout India. South Asia was open to several contacts through trade, migrations, and conquest, enrichin

Natural Fibers

Virginia Hencken Elsasser

Source: Textiles. Concepts and Principles, 3rd Edition, 2010, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The two main classifications of natural fibers are protein and cellulose. Protein fibers, such as silk and wool, are obtained from animals. Cellulosic fibers, such as cotton and flax, are obtained from plants. Asbestos, a mineral fiber, and natural rubber are other natural fibers. Asbestos is seldom used because it is carcinogenic. Natural rubber has limited use because synthetic rubber is superior for most purposes.

Manufactured Cellulosic And Regenerated Protein Fibers

Virginia Hencken Elsasser

Source: Textiles. Concepts and Principles, 3rd Edition, 2010, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Manufactured cellulosic and regenerated protein fibers are created from materials that cannot be used for fibers in their original state. For example, cotton linters cannot be spun into cotton, but they can be used to create regenerated cellulosic fibers. Often, but not always, the characteristics of the regenerated fibers are similar to those of the natural fibers. Rayon, a regenerated cellulosic, has some characteristics that are very similar to those of cotton. Regenerated protein fibers are c

Linen

Margarita Gleba

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Since prehistory, linen, made from flax, has been one of the most widely used textile materials. Linen does not take easily to natural dyes, so before the advent of synthetic colorants it was rarely dyed. Linen is particularly suitable for utilitarian fabrics, owing to its strength, low elasticity, and durability. The earliest known textiles are linen. In Europe, flax was cultivated by the second half of the seventh millennium b.c.e. Some surviving fabrics are so fine that they still cannot be du

Revival of Piña Cloth and Dress: Southern Luzon and Central Philippines

B. Lynne Milgram

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Contemporary designers and manufacturers in the Philippines have revived the production of piña cloth and dress since the 1990s. Piña, a diaphanous cloth woven from the fibers of the leaves of the pineapple plant, is a textile synonymous with cloth production in the central Philippines. From the height of its popularity in the late eighteenth to early nineteenth centuries under Spanish colonial rule, demands for garments made from piña cloth decreased to periodic orders by the early twentieth cen

Cotton

Giorgio Riello

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Although archaeological evidence shows cotton was known in Europe during the Roman Empire, it was only after 1100 that this fiber was used by Europeans. Even then, Europeans did not produce cloth entirely made of cotton due to the scarcity of the raw material in the continent. By the time of the so-called little ice age of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, cotton had ceased to be grown even in temperate climates like that of southern Italy. Small quantities of Indian textiles probably reac

The Textile Industry

Michiel Scheffer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The textile industry covers the sequence of production stages, starting from fibers through clothing assembly. Europe’s textile industry has been significant in both economic and cultural history. It was the first sector to industrialize and was therefore at the core of the pervasive economic and social changes that took place in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. For more than a century, the advantages of large-scale cloth production made West Europe a world leader in this trade, but since

Niue: Dress, Hats, and Woven Accessories

Hilke Thode-Arora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The small Polynesian island of Niue is one of the highest coral islands in the world. Only its plateau, rising with steep cliffs above a jagged coastline, can be inhabited. Throughout Niue’s history droughts and famines have been experienced with regularity. There are no rivers on the island, and, although soil is fertile, vast stretches of land have been exhausted by shifting cultivation and ill-advised agricultural programs of the past. The soil is easily blown off by frequent and often devasta

Supporting Cast

Michael P. Londrigan

Source: Menswear. Business to Style, 2009, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Trend services help the industry sift through information and discover new trends. Although companies and associations such as CAUS and Cotton Incorporated provide services (some fee free) to the industry, there is an entire group that makes their living as prognosticators of fashion. These trend resources include the following:

Fibres

Jenny Udale

Source: Textiles and Fashion. Exploring Printed Textiles, Knitwear, Embroidery, Menswear and Womenswear, 2nd Edition, 2008, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Natural fibres are derived from organic sources. These can be divided into plant sources (composed of cellulose), or animal sources, which are composed of protein.

Manos de Uruguay: A Cooperative Umbrella

Lynn A. Meisch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Uruguay, a small country on the southeastern coast of South America, has a population of just under four million. Its temperate climate and relatively thin soil make it perfect for sheep and cattle ranching; its principal exports are dairy products, wool, beef, hides, and grain. Criolla sheep were introduced to Uruguay from Peru via Argentina in the early seventeenth century. These descended from the Merino sheep brought to Peru by the Spanish. Merino wool has a silky feel and helps eliminate scr

Pre-Hispanic Northern Peru

Amy Oakland

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Although rare in most parts of the world, objects of a usually perishable nature including wood, feathers, plant materials, and ancient textiles have been preserved from early periods along the desert Pacific Coast of South America, a region extending from central Peru to northern Chile. Periodic rainfall on the north coast of Peru and seasonal rain in the highland regions have destroyed most ancient fabric there, but contact between regions has assured the preservation of highland cloth on the c

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