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Katharine Hamnett

Amber Jane Butchart

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Bill Blass, Spring/Summer 1984

Michelle Honig

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

This collection was all about simplicity, which led Nina Hyde at the Washington Post to comment, “Blass’s clothes have never been more simple, less contrived.” The hems were short because Blass believed that his couture customers had the money to keep their body in great shape. There were bra-like tops under conservative suits for day, and evening gowns in silk charmeuse draped in silk chiffon. Because of the simplicity of the clothes, the models’ hair was more extreme. Critics commended Blass’s

Helmut Lang

Elizabeth Kutesko

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Wendy Dagworthy

Michelle Labrague

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Veronique Leroy

Tory Turk

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Cividini

Tory Turk

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

The Utility Clothing Scheme

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Tweed

Fiona Anderson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Tweed cloth originated in Scotland in the early nineteenth century. At that time, it was only made from woolen yarns in the twill weave. From the 1820s to the present, tweed has been characterized by a huge range of color and weave effects. The main account given for the origins of the name tweed is that it is based on a misreading of the Scottish word tweel or twill (which was the weave characteristic of Scottish woolens at that time) for tweed. By the 1840s, tweed was established as a term used

Early History of Dress and Fashion in the Nordic Countries

Eva B. Andersson, Margarita Gleba, Ulla Mannering and Marianne Vedeler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Nordic countries comprise Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Aaland, Finland, Iceland, the Faroes, and Greenland. The northernmost part of Germany and the Norse community on Greenland are also considered here to be within this cultural area. Denmark has abundant Bronze and Early Iron Age finds, while Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Greenland have yielded more medieval material. From about 4200 b.c.e., textiles appear at Danish sites; Early Bronze Age graves have yielded complete garments, including women’

The Wool Industry in Australia

Prudence Black and Anne Farren

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

That the wealth of Australia rode “on the sheep’s back” is a well-known expression. In particular, it has been Merino wool (a thick fine fleece suited to weaving into quality fabric) for the international and increasingly global clothing market that has been Australia’s most significant product. The Merino sheep has been selectively bred for over two hundred years and is recognized worldwide for its uniformly fine and soft fibers. While Australia is home to only a small proportion of the world’s

Miao National Minority

Gina Corrigan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Today, the Miao ethnic minority live in southwestern China, their population totaling 8.9 million. Miao origins and migrations are controversial and poorly documented, but we know that attempts to subdue them have been difficult. Miao in remote mountain regions developed many garments, expressing cultural identity. In 2000 a book published in China illustrated 173 different styles of Miao dress. Following the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, the female population in the countryside again adopted trad

History of Textiles of South Asia

Jasleen Dhamija

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

South Asia’s rich cultural heritage is expressed in the continuing tradition of textiles, going back nearly five thousand years. Although silk was an important textile very early, it was cotton, cultivated in most parts of South Asia and developed as a fabric, that was probably exported to other countries. Cultivated cotton, developed in the Indian subcontinent around 3000 b.c.e., was woven throughout India. South Asia was open to several contacts through trade, migrations, and conquest, enrichin

North American Silk Industry

Jacqueline Field

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

By the early twentieth century, the U.S. silk industry was the largest in the world. It transformed silk, a historically scarce and expensive luxury, into a widely available and affordable fabric. Silk materials filtered into almost every kind of female dress, many articles of male dress, and all sorts of trimmings and accessories. An array of different silks—plain, patterned, colorful, lustrous, soft, rustling, light, heavy—to one degree or another brought the visual aesthetic and sensuous pleas

Raw Silk and Reeling

Jacqueline Field

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Silk Weighting

Jacqueline Field

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Icelandic Knitted Apparel

Jennifer Graham

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Historical Survey of Textiles and Dress in Turkey

Charlotte Jirousek

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Turkic people have a long and far-reaching history that originates in Central Asia, where ethnic Turks are still found. Turkic people in the early twenty-first century reside across the length of Asia, from northwestern China to the Balkans. The term Turkic refers to the general ethnolinguistic group that includes existing societies such as the Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Uighurs, Azerbaijani, Turkmen, and Turkish people. It also includes past civilizations such as the Xiongnu, Cumans, Av

Wool

Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Translated by Stig Erik Sørheim

Kjetil Enstad

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Wool is probably the first fiber humans used, and throughout history it has been not only the most utilized fiber but also a commodity of great economic significance. In the twenty-first century, wool plays a more modest role and is primarily associated with quality and tradition.

Textile Manufacture in Japan

Desiree Koslin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The earliest textile survivals in Japan date to the seventh and eighth centuries. Chinese influences reached Japan in the early eighth century, and from that time on, fine colorful silks were woven for the imperial court in the Nishijin quarters of the capital. Four major natural fibers were traditionally used: hemp, ramie, cotton, and silk. The display and use of textiles have been of great social and economic importance in Japanese culture. A unique set of circumstances enabled meteoric develop

New Zealand Textiles and Apparel Sectors

R. M. Laing and C. A. Wilson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Development of the textile and apparel sectors in New Zealand can be traced from settler society to the early twenty-first century, influenced by geography, communication, trade policies and agreements, government assistance, and fashion and technical developments of Western Europe and the United States. During this period there were times of dependence, then relative self-sufficiency in the late nineteenth and much of the early twentieth century. The change to greater dependency on imports durin

Uzbek Textiles

Carter Malik

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

After the creation of the independent republic of Uzbekistan in 1991, Uzbek textiles, with their brilliant color combinations and decorative exuberance, drew much interest from the international community and fashion experts. Silk wall hangings, ceremonial robes, and ikat dresses from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries began to appear more often in private collections, galleries, museums, and boutiques around the world. Khan atlas (silk satin-weave ikat), suzani embroidery (needlework)

Paterson, New Jersey, Silk Industry

Mary Pluckhahn Masilamani

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Southwest

Nancy J. Parezo

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The American Southwest and northwestern Mexico compose a culture area that is called the Greater Southwest, which since 1848 has been divided by two modern nation-states and influenced by each nation’s history, policy, and attire. As the arid homeland to a wealth of both well-known and little-known cultures, the Southwest has expressed a rich and varied history of attire, defined by both lifestyles and cultures. Based on a basic desert adaptation of prepared animal hide and woven fiber attire, wh

Wales

Elen Phillips

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Wales, one of the United Kingdom’s four constituent nations, is located on the western shores of the British Isles. Agriculture accounts for 80 percent of its land use. Sheep have always been the mainstay of the Welsh rural economy. The principal rural industry in Wales for centuries was woolen manufacture. Although the industry declined steadily for much of the nineteenth century, small woolen mills were once a common sight in the Welsh countryside. Welsh flannel made ideal clothing for everyday

Silk

Giorgio Riello

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Silk, a natural fiber produced from silkworms, is not native to Europe. Of all natural fibers, silk has most preserved its exotic connotations: sensual, rich in texture, and unique for its shine. Natural silk remains the most appreciated fiber not just in Europe but globally. Its origin can be located in China and dates back to between 5000 and 3000 b.c.e. Archaeological evidence suggests that Chinese silk was discovered by Europeans as early as 500 b.c.e., but it took several centuries for silk

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