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Tweed: Terms, Descriptions, and Characteristics

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The word tweed began to be used to denote woolen cloths from Scotland in the twill weave from the 1830s.The Satirist, September 2, 1838, front cover. Before that decade, its only form was the proper noun, Tweed, which is the name of a river that flows through the Scottish Borders region. That river became well known throughout Britain and to an extent, Europe, in the early nineteenth century because of its close associations with the famous writer, Sir Walter Scott, who lived near it.D.Watson, “T

Fiber Classification: Natural Fibers

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Critical to the comprehensive understanding of textiles is the chemical base of each fiber. All fibers can be grouped into one of the following five chemical classifications, presented in Table 2.1.

Knits

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Included in this category are:

Rendering Concepts

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

For the purposes of this book, we will group the fabrics into four categories, which include: (1) wool and other textured fabrics; (2) shiny fabrics; (3) sheers; and (4) prints. To help you understand these breakdowns and categories, let's take a look at each one.

Skirts and Pants

Sharon Czachor

Source: Sewing with Knits and Stretch Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The following techniques are stitched in both skirts and pants and are organized for sample making and application to garments that follow these directions. Stitching directions for the knit skirt, pants, and stretch woven fabric are included under each category.

Fibers (Swatches 1-15)

Ingrid Johnson, Ajoy K. Sarkar and Allen C. Cohen

Source: J. J.Pizzuto’s Fabric Science. Swatch Kit, 11th Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Katharine Hamnett

Amber Jane Butchart

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Designer Biography

Bill Blass, Spring/Summer 1984

Michelle Honig

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

This collection was all about simplicity, which led Nina Hyde at the Washington Post to comment, “Blass’s clothes have never been more simple, less contrived.” The hems were short because Blass believed that his couture customers had the money to keep their body in great shape. There were bra-like tops under conservative suits for day, and evening gowns in silk charmeuse draped in silk chiffon. Because of the simplicity of the clothes, the models’ hair was more extreme. Critics commended Blass’s

Natural and Manufactured Fibers

Ingrid Johnson, Allen C. Cohen and Ajoy K. Sarkar

Source: J.J. Pizzuto’s Fabric Science, 11th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The properties and characteristics of textile fibers form the foundation for apparel, home, or industrial applications. A fiber is viable when it possesses the desired chemical and physical attributes for a specific end use. In addition, the fiber must be able to be produced in commercial quantities and available at prices consistent with market demands.

Textile Laws, Regulations, and Trade Agreements

Ingrid Johnson, Allen C. Cohen and Ajoy K. Sarkar

Source: J.J. Pizzuto’s Fabric Science, 11th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The production of fiber through the manufacturing of consumer end products in the textile industry is complex, with the content of the material often determining end use. Because of this complexity and the need to provide standardized information to end users, governments have adopted rules and regulations which require manufacturers to provide certain standardized information about their product. This chapter will address the major laws affecting textiles manufactured or sold in the United State

Helmut Lang

Elizabeth Kutesko

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Designer Biography

Wendy Dagworthy

Michelle Labrague

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Designer Biography

Veronique Leroy

Tory Turk

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Designer Biography

Cividini

Tory Turk

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Designer Biography

Synthesizing Sex: Publicity for Artificial and Natural Fibres

Paul Jobling

Source: Advertising Menswear. Masculinity and Fashion in the British Media since 1945, 2014, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

‘Cloth for Men’: Wool and the Whisper of Darker Things In Dormeuil’s Tonik Press Campaign, 1968–75

Paul Jobling

Source: Advertising Menswear. Masculinity and Fashion in the British Media since 1945, 2014, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

“Digital Duo” Color Flats, Floats, Design, and Presentation

Stacy Stewart Smith

Source: CAD for Fashion Design and Merchandising, 2013, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The primary objective of this chapter is to teach you how to create exceptional 3-D digital color flats and floats from technical drawings. Therefore, the tutorials in Chapters 12, 13, and 14 should be completed before attempting the ones here. In fact, some of the technical flats presented in Chapter 14 will be enhanced in this one. This chapter also culminates all the lessons in the book, and reinforces the skills you will need to create a totally digital fashion portfolio presentation. In this

The Utility Clothing Scheme

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Tweed

Fiona Anderson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Tweed cloth originated in Scotland in the early nineteenth century. At that time, it was only made from woolen yarns in the twill weave. From the 1820s to the present, tweed has been characterized by a huge range of color and weave effects. The main account given for the origins of the name tweed is that it is based on a misreading of the Scottish word tweel or twill (which was the weave characteristic of Scottish woolens at that time) for tweed. By the 1840s, tweed was established as a term used

Early History of Dress and Fashion in the Nordic Countries

Eva B. Andersson, Margarita Gleba, Ulla Mannering and Marianne Vedeler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Nordic countries comprise Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Aaland, Finland, Iceland, the Faroes, and Greenland. The northernmost part of Germany and the Norse community on Greenland are also considered here to be within this cultural area. Denmark has abundant Bronze and Early Iron Age finds, while Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Greenland have yielded more medieval material. From about 4200 b.c.e., textiles appear at Danish sites; Early Bronze Age graves have yielded complete garments, including women’

The Wool Industry in Australia

Prudence Black and Anne Farren

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

That the wealth of Australia rode “on the sheep’s back” is a well-known expression. In particular, it has been Merino wool (a thick fine fleece suited to weaving into quality fabric) for the international and increasingly global clothing market that has been Australia’s most significant product. The Merino sheep has been selectively bred for over two hundred years and is recognized worldwide for its uniformly fine and soft fibers. While Australia is home to only a small proportion of the world’s

Miao National Minority

Gina Corrigan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Today, the Miao ethnic minority live in southwestern China, their population totaling 8.9 million. Miao origins and migrations are controversial and poorly documented, but we know that attempts to subdue them have been difficult. Miao in remote mountain regions developed many garments, expressing cultural identity. In 2000 a book published in China illustrated 173 different styles of Miao dress. Following the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, the female population in the countryside again adopted trad

History of Textiles of South Asia

Jasleen Dhamija

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

South Asia’s rich cultural heritage is expressed in the continuing tradition of textiles, going back nearly five thousand years. Although silk was an important textile very early, it was cotton, cultivated in most parts of South Asia and developed as a fabric, that was probably exported to other countries. Cultivated cotton, developed in the Indian subcontinent around 3000 b.c.e., was woven throughout India. South Asia was open to several contacts through trade, migrations, and conquest, enrichin

Natural Fibers

Virginia Hencken Elsasser

Source: Textiles. Concepts and Principles, 3rd Edition, 2010, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The two main classifications of natural fibers are protein and cellulose. Protein fibers, such as silk and wool, are obtained from animals. Cellulosic fibers, such as cotton and flax, are obtained from plants. Asbestos, a mineral fiber, and natural rubber are other natural fibers. Asbestos is seldom used because it is carcinogenic. Natural rubber has limited use because synthetic rubber is superior for most purposes.

North American Silk Industry

Jacqueline Field

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

By the early twentieth century, the U.S. silk industry was the largest in the world. It transformed silk, a historically scarce and expensive luxury, into a widely available and affordable fabric. Silk materials filtered into almost every kind of female dress, many articles of male dress, and all sorts of trimmings and accessories. An array of different silks—plain, patterned, colorful, lustrous, soft, rustling, light, heavy—to one degree or another brought the visual aesthetic and sensuous pleas

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