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Katharine Hamnett

Amber Jane Butchart

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Wendy Dagworthy

Michelle Labrague

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

The Utility Clothing Scheme

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Tweed

Fiona Anderson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Tweed cloth originated in Scotland in the early nineteenth century. At that time, it was only made from woolen yarns in the twill weave. From the 1820s to the present, tweed has been characterized by a huge range of color and weave effects. The main account given for the origins of the name tweed is that it is based on a misreading of the Scottish word tweel or twill (which was the weave characteristic of Scottish woolens at that time) for tweed. By the 1840s, tweed was established as a term used

Early History of Dress and Fashion in the Nordic Countries

Eva B. Andersson, Margarita Gleba, Ulla Mannering and Marianne Vedeler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Nordic countries comprise Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Aaland, Finland, Iceland, the Faroes, and Greenland. The northernmost part of Germany and the Norse community on Greenland are also considered here to be within this cultural area. Denmark has abundant Bronze and Early Iron Age finds, while Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Greenland have yielded more medieval material. From about 4200 b.c.e., textiles appear at Danish sites; Early Bronze Age graves have yielded complete garments, including women’

The Wool Industry in Australia

Prudence Black and Anne Farren

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

That the wealth of Australia rode “on the sheep’s back” is a well-known expression. In particular, it has been Merino wool (a thick fine fleece suited to weaving into quality fabric) for the international and increasingly global clothing market that has been Australia’s most significant product. The Merino sheep has been selectively bred for over two hundred years and is recognized worldwide for its uniformly fine and soft fibers. While Australia is home to only a small proportion of the world’s

History of Textiles of South Asia

Jasleen Dhamija

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

South Asia’s rich cultural heritage is expressed in the continuing tradition of textiles, going back nearly five thousand years. Although silk was an important textile very early, it was cotton, cultivated in most parts of South Asia and developed as a fabric, that was probably exported to other countries. Cultivated cotton, developed in the Indian subcontinent around 3000 b.c.e., was woven throughout India. South Asia was open to several contacts through trade, migrations, and conquest, enrichin

Icelandic Knitted Apparel

Jennifer Graham

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Historical Survey of Textiles and Dress in Turkey

Charlotte Jirousek

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Turkic people have a long and far-reaching history that originates in Central Asia, where ethnic Turks are still found. Turkic people in the early twenty-first century reside across the length of Asia, from northwestern China to the Balkans. The term Turkic refers to the general ethnolinguistic group that includes existing societies such as the Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Uighurs, Azerbaijani, Turkmen, and Turkish people. It also includes past civilizations such as the Xiongnu, Cumans, Av

Wool

Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Translated by Stig Erik Sørheim

Kjetil Enstad

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Wool is probably the first fiber humans used, and throughout history it has been not only the most utilized fiber but also a commodity of great economic significance. In the twenty-first century, wool plays a more modest role and is primarily associated with quality and tradition.

New Zealand Textiles and Apparel Sectors

R. M. Laing and C. A. Wilson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Development of the textile and apparel sectors in New Zealand can be traced from settler society to the early twenty-first century, influenced by geography, communication, trade policies and agreements, government assistance, and fashion and technical developments of Western Europe and the United States. During this period there were times of dependence, then relative self-sufficiency in the late nineteenth and much of the early twentieth century. The change to greater dependency on imports durin

Wales

Elen Phillips

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Wales, one of the United Kingdom’s four constituent nations, is located on the western shores of the British Isles. Agriculture accounts for 80 percent of its land use. Sheep have always been the mainstay of the Welsh rural economy. The principal rural industry in Wales for centuries was woolen manufacture. Although the industry declined steadily for much of the nineteenth century, small woolen mills were once a common sight in the Welsh countryside. Welsh flannel made ideal clothing for everyday

Materials

Giorgio Riello

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before 1800, fashionable individuals were defined as much by the textiles they chose as the styles they wore. There are characteristics shared by all textiles. First, they were used by people across society to construct notions of worth and appropriateness. Second, their importance in medieval, early modern, and modern European societies was linked to their value. Before industrialization reduced production costs, textiles remained generally luxuries. A third shared characteristic was their ubiqu

The Textile Industry

Michiel Scheffer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The textile industry covers the sequence of production stages, starting from fibers through clothing assembly. Europe’s textile industry has been significant in both economic and cultural history. It was the first sector to industrialize and was therefore at the core of the pervasive economic and social changes that took place in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. For more than a century, the advantages of large-scale cloth production made West Europe a world leader in this trade, but since

Wool Cloth and Gender: The Use of Woollen Cloth in Women's Dress in Britain, 1865–85

Lou Taylor

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

This study examines the design development of heavyweight woollen fashion fabric used in the new tailored outdoor garments for middle- and upper-class women's wear in Britain in the 1865–85 period.

Manos de Uruguay: A Cooperative Umbrella

Lynn A. Meisch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Uruguay, a small country on the southeastern coast of South America, has a population of just under four million. Its temperate climate and relatively thin soil make it perfect for sheep and cattle ranching; its principal exports are dairy products, wool, beef, hides, and grain. Criolla sheep were introduced to Uruguay from Peru via Argentina in the early seventeenth century. These descended from the Merino sheep brought to Peru by the Spanish. Merino wool has a silky feel and helps eliminate scr

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