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Knits

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Included in this category are:

Rendering Concepts

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

For the purposes of this book, we will group the fabrics into four categories, which include: (1) wool and other textured fabrics; (2) shiny fabrics; (3) sheers; and (4) prints. To help you understand these breakdowns and categories, let's take a look at each one.

Skirts and Pants

Sharon Czachor

Source: Sewing with Knits and Stretch Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The following techniques are stitched in both skirts and pants and are organized for sample making and application to garments that follow these directions. Stitching directions for the knit skirt, pants, and stretch woven fabric are included under each category.

Fibers (Swatches 1-15)

Ingrid Johnson, Ajoy K. Sarkar and Allen C. Cohen

Source: J. J.Pizzuto’s Fabric Science. Swatch Kit, 11th Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Katharine Hamnett

Amber Jane Butchart

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Designer Biography

Textile Laws, Regulations, and Trade Agreements

Ingrid Johnson, Allen C. Cohen and Ajoy K. Sarkar

Source: J.J. Pizzuto’s Fabric Science, 11th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The production of fiber through the manufacturing of consumer end products in the textile industry is complex, with the content of the material often determining end use. Because of this complexity and the need to provide standardized information to end users, governments have adopted rules and regulations which require manufacturers to provide certain standardized information about their product. This chapter will address the major laws affecting textiles manufactured or sold in the United State

Natural and Manufactured Fibers

Ingrid Johnson, Allen C. Cohen and Ajoy K. Sarkar

Source: J.J. Pizzuto’s Fabric Science, 11th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The properties and characteristics of textile fibers form the foundation for apparel, home, or industrial applications. A fiber is viable when it possesses the desired chemical and physical attributes for a specific end use. In addition, the fiber must be able to be produced in commercial quantities and available at prices consistent with market demands.

Wendy Dagworthy

Michelle Labrague

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Designer Biography

‘Cloth for Men’: Wool and the Whisper of Darker Things In Dormeuil’s Tonik Press Campaign, 1968–75

Paul Jobling

Source: Advertising Menswear. Masculinity and Fashion in the British Media since 1945, 2014, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The Utility Clothing Scheme

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Tweed

Fiona Anderson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Tweed cloth originated in Scotland in the early nineteenth century. At that time, it was only made from woolen yarns in the twill weave. From the 1820s to the present, tweed has been characterized by a huge range of color and weave effects. The main account given for the origins of the name tweed is that it is based on a misreading of the Scottish word tweel or twill (which was the weave characteristic of Scottish woolens at that time) for tweed. By the 1840s, tweed was established as a term used

Early History of Dress and Fashion in the Nordic Countries

Eva B. Andersson, Margarita Gleba, Ulla Mannering and Marianne Vedeler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Nordic countries comprise Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Aaland, Finland, Iceland, the Faroes, and Greenland. The northernmost part of Germany and the Norse community on Greenland are also considered here to be within this cultural area. Denmark has abundant Bronze and Early Iron Age finds, while Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Greenland have yielded more medieval material. From about 4200 b.c.e., textiles appear at Danish sites; Early Bronze Age graves have yielded complete garments, including women’

The Wool Industry in Australia

Prudence Black and Anne Farren

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

That the wealth of Australia rode “on the sheep’s back” is a well-known expression. In particular, it has been Merino wool (a thick fine fleece suited to weaving into quality fabric) for the international and increasingly global clothing market that has been Australia’s most significant product. The Merino sheep has been selectively bred for over two hundred years and is recognized worldwide for its uniformly fine and soft fibers. While Australia is home to only a small proportion of the world’s

History of Textiles of South Asia

Jasleen Dhamija

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

South Asia’s rich cultural heritage is expressed in the continuing tradition of textiles, going back nearly five thousand years. Although silk was an important textile very early, it was cotton, cultivated in most parts of South Asia and developed as a fabric, that was probably exported to other countries. Cultivated cotton, developed in the Indian subcontinent around 3000 b.c.e., was woven throughout India. South Asia was open to several contacts through trade, migrations, and conquest, enrichin

Natural Fibers

Virginia Hencken Elsasser

Source: Textiles. Concepts and Principles, 3rd Edition, 2010, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The two main classifications of natural fibers are protein and cellulose. Protein fibers, such as silk and wool, are obtained from animals. Cellulosic fibers, such as cotton and flax, are obtained from plants. Asbestos, a mineral fiber, and natural rubber are other natural fibers. Asbestos is seldom used because it is carcinogenic. Natural rubber has limited use because synthetic rubber is superior for most purposes.

Icelandic Knitted Apparel

Jennifer Graham

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Historical Survey of Textiles and Dress in Turkey

Charlotte Jirousek

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Turkic people have a long and far-reaching history that originates in Central Asia, where ethnic Turks are still found. Turkic people in the early twenty-first century reside across the length of Asia, from northwestern China to the Balkans. The term Turkic refers to the general ethnolinguistic group that includes existing societies such as the Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Uighurs, Azerbaijani, Turkmen, and Turkish people. It also includes past civilizations such as the Xiongnu, Cumans, Av

Wool

Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Translated by Stig Erik Sørheim

Kjetil Enstad

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Wool is probably the first fiber humans used, and throughout history it has been not only the most utilized fiber but also a commodity of great economic significance. In the twenty-first century, wool plays a more modest role and is primarily associated with quality and tradition.

New Zealand Textiles and Apparel Sectors

R. M. Laing and C. A. Wilson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Development of the textile and apparel sectors in New Zealand can be traced from settler society to the early twenty-first century, influenced by geography, communication, trade policies and agreements, government assistance, and fashion and technical developments of Western Europe and the United States. During this period there were times of dependence, then relative self-sufficiency in the late nineteenth and much of the early twentieth century. The change to greater dependency on imports durin

Wales

Elen Phillips

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Wales, one of the United Kingdom’s four constituent nations, is located on the western shores of the British Isles. Agriculture accounts for 80 percent of its land use. Sheep have always been the mainstay of the Welsh rural economy. The principal rural industry in Wales for centuries was woolen manufacture. Although the industry declined steadily for much of the nineteenth century, small woolen mills were once a common sight in the Welsh countryside. Welsh flannel made ideal clothing for everyday

Materials

Giorgio Riello

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Before 1800, fashionable individuals were defined as much by the textiles they chose as the styles they wore. There are characteristics shared by all textiles. First, they were used by people across society to construct notions of worth and appropriateness. Second, their importance in medieval, early modern, and modern European societies was linked to their value. Before industrialization reduced production costs, textiles remained generally luxuries. A third shared characteristic was their ubiqu

The Textile Industry

Michiel Scheffer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The textile industry covers the sequence of production stages, starting from fibers through clothing assembly. Europe’s textile industry has been significant in both economic and cultural history. It was the first sector to industrialize and was therefore at the core of the pervasive economic and social changes that took place in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. For more than a century, the advantages of large-scale cloth production made West Europe a world leader in this trade, but since

Wool Cloth and Gender: The Use of Woollen Cloth in Women's Dress in Britain, 1865–85

Lou Taylor

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion, 2nd Edition, 2009, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

This study examines the design development of heavyweight woollen fashion fabric used in the new tailored outdoor garments for middle- and upper-class women's wear in Britain in the 1865–85 period.

Manos de Uruguay: A Cooperative Umbrella

Lynn A. Meisch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Uruguay, a small country on the southeastern coast of South America, has a population of just under four million. Its temperate climate and relatively thin soil make it perfect for sheep and cattle ranching; its principal exports are dairy products, wool, beef, hides, and grain. Criolla sheep were introduced to Uruguay from Peru via Argentina in the early seventeenth century. These descended from the Merino sheep brought to Peru by the Spanish. Merino wool has a silky feel and helps eliminate scr

Wool

Annie Gullingsrud

Foreword by Lynda Grose

Illustrations by Amy Williams

Source: Fashion Fibers. Designing For Sustainability, 2001, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Wool garments are collected for reuse in many countries. Recycled wools are readily available in the West Yorkshire, UK, and Prato, Italy.

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