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Kosuke Tsumura

Alessandro Esculapio

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Helmut Lang

Elizabeth Kutesko

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Ghost London

Morna Laing

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Hervé Léger

Emily M. Orr

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Italian Fashion

Simona Segre Reinach

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

In the first half of the twentieth century, Italian fashion did not really exist as a proper industrial sector; models of French inspiration were created, above all in women’s fashion, while British models prevailed for menswear. Everything was made at artisanal level or little more than that. Even the autarchic phase under Fascism had no repercussions on the international perception of Italian fashion, or on the promotion of a genuine development in the clothing sector, with the important except

Paco Rabanne

Daphne Stylianou

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Veronique Leroy

Tory Turk

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

The Utility Clothing Scheme

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Issey Miyake

Bonnie English

Source: Japanese Fashion Designers. The Work and Influence of Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo 2011

Book chapter

Clothes … speak many languages … and have to be seen on the outside … as well as felt on the inside.

Techno Textiles

Bonnie English

Source: Japanese Fashion Designers. The Work and Influence of Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo 2011

Book chapter

While there are a number of monolithic factories in Japan, such as Toray, the largest textile company in the world, which are technically advanced and automated, the majority of operators are small and simple by comparison. Toray has expanded its base of synthetic fibres and textiles to include many other fields, such as plastics and chemicals, advanced composite materials, pharmaceutical and medical products, construction materials, housing, and engineering. Many of the smaller factories, includ

North American Influences on West European Dress

Rebecca Arnold

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

North America’s effect on West European fashion is often viewed only in relation to Hollywood and celebrity. However, its influence has been far more diverse, from technological inventions to leisure wear and the professionalization of the industry.

Antarctic Explorer Wear

Natalie Cadenhead

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing worn in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica demonstrates important design changes developed to assist wearers with extreme weather conditions. Antarctic clothing history is split into two main eras: the heroic era from 1840 to 1917 and the scientific era from 1940 to the twenty-first century. Exploration that occurred between these eras was mainly sea-based for commercial reasons (sealing and whaling) and did not affect clothing design in any major way. At the beginning of the heroic era o

Underwear

Grace Evans

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The fashionable silhouette has gone through bewildering changes during the last two hundred years, and these would not have been possible without the shapes created beneath. Underwear and outerwear progressed in tandem. Underwear designers responded to prevailing styles of fashionable dress, and fashion designers built and relied upon the capabilities of structural underpinnings as they developed. These changes were, in turn, influenced by key social, economic, and technological developments, whi

Wearable Technology

Leopoldina Fortunati

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The history of dress is a history not only of creativity and aesthetics, imagination and communication, style and taste, but also of technology. Technology is the silent but indispensable mate of wearing apparel and fashion. The history of dress-related technologies shows the great debt that fashion and wearing apparel have to technology. The body, too, has its technological aspects: From primordial times it has, in fact, been seen as a natural machine. This vision of the body as a natural machin

Conventional Work Dress and Casual Work Dress

Colleen Gau

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing of men and women who lived and worked in the United States and Canada since the beginning of the nineteenth century through the start of the twenty-first century has presented a microcosm of societies’ changes. Agriculture was the primary means of livelihood at the outset and continues to play a role for a small portion of the population. Rag pickers, rug weavers, and quilters wore and reused fabrics; therefore, not many examples of work dress have survived. Early sewing machines of Germ

Conventional Work Dress

Colleen Gau

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Historically, climate and work environments are primary to the selection and production of work clothing, but safety concerns, economic and business climates, fashion, and ethics find a place in the clothing narrative of Western civilizations. As crops and animals were domesticated, empires emerged in the Nile and Mediterranean regions, and the classification of skill groups became more distinct. Animal skins were replaced by woven garments by the time people had settled into communities. Herding

Sports and Dress

Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Translated by Stig Erik Sørheim

Kjetil Enstad

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Europe, interest in sports and outdoor life emerged in the nineteenth century. The bourgeoisie went to the countryside to experience nature. Time spent in contact with nature was viewed as a source of inner peace and spiritual development, while awareness of the importance of physical activity for beauty and health grew. With the introduction of regulated working hours and official holidays at the beginning of the twentieth century, the working classes began to have vacation and spare time, to

Textile Manufacture in Japan

Desiree Koslin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The earliest textile survivals in Japan date to the seventh and eighth centuries. Chinese influences reached Japan in the early eighth century, and from that time on, fine colorful silks were woven for the imperial court in the Nishijin quarters of the capital. Four major natural fibers were traditionally used: hemp, ramie, cotton, and silk. The display and use of textiles have been of great social and economic importance in Japanese culture. A unique set of circumstances enabled meteoric develop

Hosiery

Nan H. Mutnick

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before the twentieth century, hosiery had seldom enjoyed the fashion limelight with other accessories of dress. During the nineteenth century, hosiery was made from cotton, silk, or very fine wool. Those living in the colder climates, such as northern Canada, would have used heavier-weight wool for warmth. Colors for women were dictated by fashion, sometimes matching the dress, petticoat, or shoes. Synthetic dyes, developed from a coal-tar derivative in 1856, allowed for modern, sharp, and bright

Leisure

Jean L. Parsons

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sportswear, casual wear, business casual, and casual Friday all suggest variations on leisure dress intended for a relaxed or less formal approach to dressing. The concept of dressing for leisure that emerged at the end of the nineteenth century and continued throughout the twentieth was different from that of earlier periods. Leisure dressing occurred across gender and class lines and involved a steady erosion of occasion-specific dressing. Women borrowed traditionally male attire for sport and

Intelligent Textiles

Bradley Quinn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Intelligent textiles are fabrics designed to be programmable in order to produce data about the exchanges they facilitate and the changes they effect. They often have interwoven circuitry and technological parts, embedded sensors and conductive fibers, or coatings of sensory materials, that is, materials capable of transmitting and receiving information about the wearer’s surroundings, and that effect a deliberate transformation while worn on the body. Known variously as technotextiles, technical

Intelligent Textiles: The Future of Fashion

Bradley Quinn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion’s engagement with disciplines such as technology, architecture, industrial design, and biochemistry is creating rapid advancements that radically reinvent its relationship to the body and the built environment. As sustainability becomes increasingly important, new materials and production methods are redefining its relationship to the environment. The first “wearable computer” prototypes of the early 1990s were body-mounted devices such as microphones attached to jackets, waistcoats, and

Materials

Giorgio Riello

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before 1800, fashionable individuals were defined as much by the textiles they chose as the styles they wore. There are characteristics shared by all textiles. First, they were used by people across society to construct notions of worth and appropriateness. Second, their importance in medieval, early modern, and modern European societies was linked to their value. Before industrialization reduced production costs, textiles remained generally luxuries. A third shared characteristic was their ubiqu

Synthetics

Michiel Scheffer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The origin of synthetic fibers goes back to the development of organic chemistry in the second half of the nineteenth century. The objective was to develop an economical, reliable alternative for silk. The development of rayon, acetate, polyamides, and polyesters all had that aim. Artificial silk was available on an industrial scale from 1920 onward, mainly for stockings and underwear. World War II boosted the production of artificial fibers, since the war interrupted wool and cotton supply to Ge

The Textile Industry

Michiel Scheffer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The textile industry covers the sequence of production stages, starting from fibers through clothing assembly. Europe’s textile industry has been significant in both economic and cultural history. It was the first sector to industrialize and was therefore at the core of the pervasive economic and social changes that took place in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. For more than a century, the advantages of large-scale cloth production made West Europe a world leader in this trade, but since

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