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Fiber Classification: Manufactured Fibers

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Manufactured cellulose fibers are made from plant material that is processed with chemicals. This processing causes a permanent change in the structure of the fiber. For this reason, although the fibers are made from natural ingredients, they are classified as manufactured fibers. For a list of properties appropriate to all manufactured cellulose fibers, see Table 2.2, Properties Common to All Cellulose Fibers (page 16), and Table 3.1, Properties of Individual Manufactured Fibers (pages 24–25).

Fiber Classification: Synthetic Fibers

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

By 1939, the process of manufacturing fibers extended to using resources such as petroleum products, petrochemicals, natural gas, and coal. The raw materials undergo complex processes necessary to spin the materials into fiber. DuPont created the first purely chemical fiber, called fiber 66. Today this fiber is called nylon.

Yarn Classification

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

A yarn is a group of fibers twisted together to form a continuous strand. Yarns can be filament, spun, or novelty (see Figure 5.1).

Knits

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Included in this category are:

Getting the Knack of Knits

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Knit fabric is a stretchable material constructed on huge knitting machines and formed by a series of horizontal interlocking loops (see Figure 1.1). The sizes of the needles and yarns used determine whether the knit will be fine or chunky. Knit fabrics come in a variety of fibers and vary in type, structure, texture, and weight. Some knits are knitted with a smooth surface. Other surfaces are textured and may be knotty, nubby, loopy, brushed, embossed, or textured. How the loops are arranged det

The Knit Family of Slopers

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The sloper system is a method of creating slopers for drafting patterns for garments constructed from stretch knit fabrics. As previously discussed in Chapter 1, in the “How Working with Knits Differs from Working with Wovens” section, slopers for woven fabrics (incorporating dart and ease) cannot be used to draft the patterns for stretch knit fabrics. Stretch knit garments require unique slopers that do not have darts or ease incorporated into the slopers. The fabric’s stretch replaces the darts

Top Slopers and Patterns

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

In this chapter you make a set of top slopers to match each stretch category. You also draft and grade a sleeve sloper into each stretch category to fit the armholes (armscye) of the top slopers.

Dress Slopers and Patterns

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

A dress-piece is a partial pattern extending from the hipline to knee length in each stretch category. Table 2.2 on p. 17 indicates that dresses are drafted from the top slopers. You add the dress-piece to the hipline of the top slopers to create the dress slopers.

Jacket, Cardigan, Sweater, and Sweater-Jacket Slopers and Patterns

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

In this chapter, you develop slopers for jackets, cardigans, and sweater-jackets. They can be fitted, loose-fit, or oversized. You must use the appropriate slopers to suit the type of knit, style, and fit you envision for your design. Fitted and loose-fit cardigan muslins have been cut, stitched, and placed on the form in Figures 8.3 and 8.4. For the opening, a 1” extension is added to the center front.

Skirt Slopers and Patterns

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

In this chapter, you create a set of skirt slopers from the two-way stretch hip foundations that were drafted in Chapter 5. Refer to Table 2.1 on p. 16 to see how the hip foundation transforms into a skirt sloper. The “Skirt Sloper” is part of the knit family of slopers in Table 2.2 on p. 17.

Pant Slopers and Patterns

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

In this chapter, you learn how to draft a set of pant slopers in each stretch category (minimal stretch, moderate stretch, very stretchy, and super stretchy). You create the pant slopers from the hip foundation that was drafted in Chapter 5. Look back at the Knit Family in Table 2.1 on p. 16 to see how the slopers for pants evolve. In addition, Table 2.2 lists other pant variations that you can draft from the pant slopers.

Lingerie Slopers and Patterns

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Before drafting patterns for lingerie, determine the stretch capacity of the knit you plan to work with using the stretch gauge in Figure 1.6 on p. 9. Then choose the appropriate stretch category of top slopers to draft the patterns. There are two ways the slopers can be selected. The first way is to use the slopers that match the stretchiness of your chosen knit. The second way is to choose a different sloper to create a roomier fit with more ease. (Refer to “How to Choose Slopers” in Chapter 2

Swimwear Slopers and Patterns

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

A swimsuit is a close-fitting article of clothing used for swimming and sunbathing. It can be one piece or a two-piece bra and panty ensemble. A swimsuit needs to be practical and wearable, and it must stay secure at all times to be swim-ready. To accomplish this, you need to purchase the correct supplies.

Getting to Know Knits and Stretch Fabrics

Sharon Czachor

Source: Sewing with Knits and Stretch Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Garments constructed from knitted fabric conform more easily to the shape of the body, reducing the fitting and construction details while retaining the shape. This allows the stretch of the fabric to replace the ease that is needed in designing woven fabric garments. The fitting for garments in stretch fabric is very different from woven fabrics and is addressed at the patternmaking stage. For further information, refer to Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics by Julie Cole (Fairchild Books, 2

Preparing Knits and Stretch Wovens for Stitching

Sharon Czachor

Source: Sewing with Knits and Stretch Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Whether the chosen fabric is a knit or a stretch woven, it’s important to identify the right side and wrong side of the fabric (Figure 4.1a and b). The wrong side of the fabric is where the markings are placed, where interfacing or stabilizers of any kind are placed, and where the construction stitches are sewn. Because of the diversity of fibers used in creating knit fabrics and stretch woven fabrics, the fibers react differently to marking pens, pencils, chalk, or wax marking utensils, even us

Stitching Knits with a Sewing Machine

Sharon Czachor

Source: Sewing with Knits and Stretch Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The supplies you will need to stitch samples of various stitches, seams, hems and techniques are a tape measure, scissors, marking utensil, seam ripper. You will also need the following.

Fibers (Swatches 1-15)

Ingrid Johnson, Ajoy K. Sarkar and Allen C. Cohen

Source: J. J.Pizzuto’s Fabric Science. Swatch Kit, 11th Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

John Galliano, Fall/Winter 1994–1995

Paula Alaszkiewicz

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

In 1990, John Galliano moved from London to Paris. His early years in Paris are described as an ebb and flow, mostly determined by financial backing or the lack thereof. Cycles of decline and regrowth have since characterized the public perception of Galliano. After forgoing the previous season due to lack of funds, Galliano’s spring/summer 1994 collection was presented in the Louvre’s Cour Carrée to critical acclaim. In March 1994, pieces from the collection were celebrated in a Vogue editorial

Kosuke Tsumura

Alessandro Esculapio

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Designer Biography

Printing and Transfer

Kimberly A. Irwin

Source: Surface Design for Fabric, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Printing is the act of applying an easily repeatable pattern to fabric. It can be done on any fabric or leather as long as the dye or paint is appropriate to the fiber content of that fabric (see Appendix A, Burn Test, page 252). A wide range of printing techniques have been in practice for much of human existence. Simple repeatable images can be created using blocks or stamps, while screen printing achieves clean crisp lines on a larger surface area.

Helmut Lang

Elizabeth Kutesko

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Designer Biography

Ghost London

Morna Laing

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Designer Biography

Grading Stretch Garments

Kathy K. Mullet

Source: Concepts of Pattern Grading. Techniques for Manual and Computer Grading, 3rd Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Grading garments made of stretch fabrics differs from grading garments made of rigid fabrics when the garments utilize the stretch as part of their fit and function. Garments in this category are actually cut smaller than the body dimensions for the size they are designed to fit. Swimwear, leotards, and unitards are examples of garments that fall into this category (Figure 9.1). These garments are referred to as stretch garments in this text. Fabrics that have enough stretch and recovery utilize

Hervé Léger

Emily M. Orr

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Designer Biography

Italian Fashion

Simona Segre Reinach

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

In the first half of the twentieth century, Italian fashion did not really exist as a proper industrial sector; models of French inspiration were created, above all in women’s fashion, while British models prevailed for menswear. Everything was made at artisanal level or little more than that. Even the autarchic phase under Fascism had no repercussions on the international perception of Italian fashion, or on the promotion of a genuine development in the clothing sector, with the important except

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