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Helmut Lang

Elizabeth Kutesko

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Italian Fashion

Simona Segre Reinach

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

In the first half of the twentieth century, Italian fashion did not really exist as a proper industrial sector; models of French inspiration were created, above all in women’s fashion, while British models prevailed for menswear. Everything was made at artisanal level or little more than that. Even the autarchic phase under Fascism had no repercussions on the international perception of Italian fashion, or on the promotion of a genuine development in the clothing sector, with the important except

Veronique Leroy

Tory Turk

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Issey Miyake

Bonnie English

Source: Japanese Fashion Designers. The Work and Influence of Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo 2011

Book chapter

Clothes … speak many languages … and have to be seen on the outside … as well as felt on the inside.

Techno Textiles

Bonnie English

Source: Japanese Fashion Designers. The Work and Influence of Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo 2011

Book chapter

While there are a number of monolithic factories in Japan, such as Toray, the largest textile company in the world, which are technically advanced and automated, the majority of operators are small and simple by comparison. Toray has expanded its base of synthetic fibres and textiles to include many other fields, such as plastics and chemicals, advanced composite materials, pharmaceutical and medical products, construction materials, housing, and engineering. Many of the smaller factories, includ

Antarctic Explorer Wear

Natalie Cadenhead

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing worn in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica demonstrates important design changes developed to assist wearers with extreme weather conditions. Antarctic clothing history is split into two main eras: the heroic era from 1840 to 1917 and the scientific era from 1940 to the twenty-first century. Exploration that occurred between these eras was mainly sea-based for commercial reasons (sealing and whaling) and did not affect clothing design in any major way. At the beginning of the heroic era o

Wearable Technology

Leopoldina Fortunati

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The history of dress is a history not only of creativity and aesthetics, imagination and communication, style and taste, but also of technology. Technology is the silent but indispensable mate of wearing apparel and fashion. The history of dress-related technologies shows the great debt that fashion and wearing apparel have to technology. The body, too, has its technological aspects: From primordial times it has, in fact, been seen as a natural machine. This vision of the body as a natural machin

Sports and Dress

Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Translated by Stig Erik Sørheim

Kjetil Enstad

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Europe, interest in sports and outdoor life emerged in the nineteenth century. The bourgeoisie went to the countryside to experience nature. Time spent in contact with nature was viewed as a source of inner peace and spiritual development, while awareness of the importance of physical activity for beauty and health grew. With the introduction of regulated working hours and official holidays at the beginning of the twentieth century, the working classes began to have vacation and spare time, to

Textile Manufacture in Japan

Desiree Koslin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The earliest textile survivals in Japan date to the seventh and eighth centuries. Chinese influences reached Japan in the early eighth century, and from that time on, fine colorful silks were woven for the imperial court in the Nishijin quarters of the capital. Four major natural fibers were traditionally used: hemp, ramie, cotton, and silk. The display and use of textiles have been of great social and economic importance in Japanese culture. A unique set of circumstances enabled meteoric develop

Intelligent Textiles

Bradley Quinn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Intelligent textiles are fabrics designed to be programmable in order to produce data about the exchanges they facilitate and the changes they effect. They often have interwoven circuitry and technological parts, embedded sensors and conductive fibers, or coatings of sensory materials, that is, materials capable of transmitting and receiving information about the wearer’s surroundings, and that effect a deliberate transformation while worn on the body. Known variously as technotextiles, technical

Intelligent Textiles: The Future of Fashion

Bradley Quinn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion’s engagement with disciplines such as technology, architecture, industrial design, and biochemistry is creating rapid advancements that radically reinvent its relationship to the body and the built environment. As sustainability becomes increasingly important, new materials and production methods are redefining its relationship to the environment. The first “wearable computer” prototypes of the early 1990s were body-mounted devices such as microphones attached to jackets, waistcoats, and

Materials

Giorgio Riello

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before 1800, fashionable individuals were defined as much by the textiles they chose as the styles they wore. There are characteristics shared by all textiles. First, they were used by people across society to construct notions of worth and appropriateness. Second, their importance in medieval, early modern, and modern European societies was linked to their value. Before industrialization reduced production costs, textiles remained generally luxuries. A third shared characteristic was their ubiqu

Synthetics

Michiel Scheffer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The origin of synthetic fibers goes back to the development of organic chemistry in the second half of the nineteenth century. The objective was to develop an economical, reliable alternative for silk. The development of rayon, acetate, polyamides, and polyesters all had that aim. Artificial silk was available on an industrial scale from 1920 onward, mainly for stockings and underwear. World War II boosted the production of artificial fibers, since the war interrupted wool and cotton supply to Ge

The Textile Industry

Michiel Scheffer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The textile industry covers the sequence of production stages, starting from fibers through clothing assembly. Europe’s textile industry has been significant in both economic and cultural history. It was the first sector to industrialize and was therefore at the core of the pervasive economic and social changes that took place in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. For more than a century, the advantages of large-scale cloth production made West Europe a world leader in this trade, but since

Artificial Hair Additions

Shari Sims

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Whether to change hair’s texture, length, add color or fabulously fake ornamentation, hair extensions have become incredibly popular in the early 21st century, leading to hair (and feather) shortages, price wars, celebrity endorsements, and even thefts. The process of hair extension, though, actually has an impressive history--and a wide range of options from permanent to temporary. This article will explore the hair fashion’s new popularity as well as the techniques, tools, fashion and star styl

Technology and Fashion

Phyllis G. Tortora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Dress in the modern world is made from a wide variety of materials. Generally, the components of dress are created and assembled by some technological process. The development of and advances in technologies used to produce fashionable dress products, however, are rarely viewed as factors related to fashion change. By exploring selected examples that originate from the time of the Industrial Revolution up to the twenty-first century, technological innovations in materials and techniques used to p

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