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Draping Principles and Skills

Connie Amaden-Crawford

Source: The Art of Fashion Draping, 5th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Draping principles and skillsDraping is a technique in which DesignDesignersdesigners work with fabric, using a dress form or live model, draping and pinning the pieces together to develop the desired style. Draping is the oldest means of creating clothing. It is an art form in fabric. The techniques by which a designer works to develop a line may vary. Many designers prefer to use draping methods to create their original designs. This is because working with actual materials gives a designer gre

Torso/Blouse Sloper and Basic Shift Silhouettes

Connie Amaden-Crawford

Source: The Art of Fashion Draping, 5th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Torso/blouse sloperThe torso/blouse sloper and basic shift silhouettes have a bust-fitting dart and no waistline seam. The waist area can be slightly fitted with one or two fisheye darts, belted, or drawn in with elastic. The side seams hang slightly away from the body and are parallel to center front. By using the torso/blouse sloper, it can be lengthened to make a shift design. Many styles of pockets, plackets, yokes, necklines, collars, and/or sleeves can be used to create the individual style

Consumer safety and product labeling guidance

Deanna Clark-Esposito

Source: A Practical Guide to Fashion Law and Compliance, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The laws governing mandatory label disclosures have three broad and collective labellinggoalsgoals:

Home Fashions

Elaine Stone and Sheryl A. Farnan

Source: The Dynamics of Fashion, 5th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The types of furnishings and household accessories in contemporary American homes are based primarily on models and ideas that the early European immigrants brought with them. Most of our beds and eating utensils, for example, are Western. But many of the fabrics and other material, the decorative patterns, and the objects themselves originated in the East and came to America through rather than from Europe. The Crusaders imported the rugs that covered the floors in medieval European castles, and

The Textile Cycle: From Fiber to Fashion

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The text begins with the smallest part of a textile—fiber—and follows the textile cycle through to the final step, finishing. With increasing demand for more versatile and functional fabrics, finishing and care have become major areas of interest within the textile world, unlimited in their commercial potential. For example, one segment of the textile industry is devoted to fibers and finishing processes that resist stains. In their search for more stain-resistant fabrics, researchers have develo

Fiber Classification: Manufactured Fibers

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Manufactured cellulose fibers are made from plant material that is processed with chemicals. This processing causes a permanent change in the structure of the fiber. For this reason, although the fibers are made from natural ingredients, they are classified as manufactured fibers. For a list of properties appropriate to all manufactured cellulose fibers, see Table 2.2, Properties Common to All Cellulose Fibers (page 16), and Table 3.1, Properties of Individual Manufactured Fibers (pages 24–25).

Fiber Classification: Synthetic Fibers

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

By 1939, the process of manufacturing fibers extended to using resources such as petroleum products, petrochemicals, natural gas, and coal. The raw materials undergo complex processes necessary to spin the materials into fiber. DuPont created the first purely chemical fiber, called fiber 66. Today this fiber is called nylon.

Yarn Classification

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

A yarn is a group of fibers twisted together to form a continuous strand. Yarns can be filament, spun, or novelty (see Figure 5.1).

Plain Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The difference between fiber and fabric is one of the most fundamental concepts in textiles and generally one of the most misunderstood. Fibers are the basic building materials. Fabrics are the final result of weaving, knitting, or minor fabrications. Identifying the fiber content is important, but it does not provide the complete picture for predicting performance. Think of describing a house by labeling it as wood. While the house may be built primarily of wood, that description does not create

Plain-Weave Variations: Basket and Rib Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Like plain weaves, basket-weave construction is perfectly balanced, but two or more yarns act together as one to create the structure. Basket weaves are often represented by multiples in the yarn, such as two to two, three to three, four to four, and so on. See Figure 7.1 for an example of a 2:2 basket weave.

Twill Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The floats (skipped interlacings that create diagonal wales) found in a twill have the following impact on fabric:

Satin Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The following list of characteristics applies to satin weaves:

Complex Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Crepe is a general term for a group of fabrics that are made using one of several methods of construction. This is a reclassification of fabrics previously analyzed. The overview that follows reveals the differences in construction, while maintaining performance expectations. Structure is not a constant in this category.

Pile Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Pile weaves are made with three sets of yarns: a vertical set (warp), horizontal threads (weft), and a set of yarns making perpendicular loops on the surface of the other two, creating a three-dimensional structure. The warp and weft interlace and form a tightly woven ground weave. With the exception of terry cloth, the perpendicular loops of these fabrics are later sheared and brushed in the finishing process.

Knit Fabrics

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Knitting is the second major method of constructing a textile. Weaving was invented thousands of years before knitting; knits are relative newcomers. As such, knitting structures borrow a lot of their terms and surfaces from woven fabrics. Notice that some knit fabrics even share the same or similar names as woven fabrics, such as piqués, ribs, and jacquards. It can be quite confusing. In the past decade, the knit market has grown exponentially, taking on a much larger share of the textile market

Specialty Weft Knits

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Interlock (Figure 13.1) is both the simplest of the double knits (made on a double needle bed) and is also a variation of a 1×1 rib knit. Interlock is so closely related to the rib knit that it is often difficult to identify the difference between the two. Effectively, interlock is two jerseys made back-to-back, with wales on both the face and back. For this reason, it is sometimes called a double jersey. This term is somewhat problematic because it does not look like or perform like a jersey. Es

Warp Knits

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Tricot is the simplest of the warp knits. Notice that Swatch 144 has a different face and back, like jersey. In fact, tricot and jersey are made quite similarly. Each is made entirely of knit stitches, with a face of wales and a back of courses. But jersey and tricot are made on different machines and, therefore, do not look or perform the same. Generally, tricot is lighter weight and smoother than jersey because the stitches are smaller, and tricot is usually made of filament yarns. Unlike jerse

Minor Fabrications

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The fabrics in this category are made without yarn. Without yarns, there is no organized structure or thread count. Because yarn construction is labor intensive, fabrics made without yarns offer significant cost savings over those made with yarns. Additionally, nonwoven fabrics are often softer and more elastic than their woven or even knitted counterparts. The fibers are blown onto a collection surface and held together by entanglement (or needlepunching), heat fusion (if thermoplastic), or adhe

Fabrics Defined by Finishes

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

All fabrics get a general finish; in fact, most fabrics have undergone at least a dozen general finishes by the time they reach the hands of the consumer. General finishes include washing, ironing, singeing, or bleaching the fabric.

Quick Reference Guide Tables

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Swatch Boards

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Stitch Fundamentals

Lisa Donofrio-Ferrezza and Marilyn Hefferen

Source: Designing a Knitwear Collection. From Inspiration to Finished Garments, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The loop is the basic structure of knitting. When a loop is formed and used in a sequence, a knit fabric is created. When a yarn is carried horizontally to create a series of loops, the method of knitting is known as weft knitting (see Chapter 1). Weft structures may be made by hand or by machine. This is the most common method of knitting used for fabric and clothing (Figure 3.1, left). Warp knitting is the method of carrying a yarn in a sequence that requires a vertical movement (Figure 3.1, ri

Surface-Specific Techniques

Anette Fischer and Kiran Gobin

Source: Construction for Fashion Design, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Felted woven fabrics are shrunk and compressed with heat, moisture and friction to produce a dense appearance. Some of the better-known felted fabrics are loden, melton or fleece. The edges of a felted fabric do not fray, so seams can be left unfinished. It is most common to use a plain stitched seam with top-stitching or a welt seam for light- to medium-weight felted fabric. But there are many more techniques to choose from, such as the following:

Garment Support and Structure

Anette Fischer and Kiran Gobin

Source: Construction for Fashion Design, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Throughout history, dressmakers and tailors have been working hard to achieve a certain body shape in fashion. Since humans first began to cover their bodies, supportive and structured garments have been used and modified. At first, these garments would have been purely for shelter and protection. As time went on, however, clothing began to be associated with social and/or economic status and the interest in structured garments that would accentuate certain parts of the body grew.

Sportswear, Knit, and Print

John Hopkins

Source: Menswear, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Men's fashions all start as sports clothes and progress to the great occasions of state. The tail coat, which started out as a hunting coat, is just finishing such a journey. The tracksuit is just beginning one.

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