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Martine Sitbon

Shari Sims

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Harriet Selling

Tory Turk

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Givenchy Couture, Fall/Winter 1988

Aimee Williams

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

The year 1988 marked major events for Givenchy. In June, French conglomerate Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessey (LVMH) acquired Givenchy’s couture line. Hubert de Givenchy received his Lifetime Achievement award in October. The fall/winter collection’s focal points were texture and color. Rich greens, purples, and crimson saturated fluid fabrics like satin, velvet, and silk, with matching dyed mink, beaver, and fox coats and stoles. Large dyed feathers made an impact in evening wear, affixed to floor-l

Givenchy Couture, Spring/Summer 1997

Aimee Williams

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Alexander McQueen’s 1997 premiere at Givenchy following John Galliano’s departure resounded notably during the spring/summer couture showings, heralding the “revival of couture.” Showing at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, the Grecian-inspired collection acknowledged the house’s defining conventions with double-breasted ivory suits and straightened silhouettes that hit above the knee. A generally neutral to white palette of silk, finely woven feathers, and gossamer textures

Givenchy Couture, Fall/Winter 1983

Aimee Williams

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Givenchy’s well-received fall/winter 1983 couture collection augured the opulence of the decade. Lavish surfeit came in many options for patrons, from jewel-encrusted leather boleros and skirt suits trimmed with mink and fox fur for day, to sequined metallic gowns for evening. Suede and leather gloves and hats and oversized jewels accessorized hand-painted silk skirts and dresses. The chemise and the hourglass shape prevailed. The former figure came in a range of sumptuous textiles, corresponding

Early Orientalism and the Barbaresque

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

Just to what extent Justinian was instrumental in the demystification of silk within Europe is debatable, because the fibres of the highest quality still emanated from elsewhere: the Middle East and Cathay. Silks had always been the commodity of choice for the Roman citizenry and aristocracy. Although the earliest dates of trade with Asia and the Middle East are uncertain, they can be traced to as far back as the fourth century bc, when the commerce was predominately with India and Persia. China

1690–1815: Chinoiserie, Indiennerie, Turquerie and Egyptomania

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

See, mademoiselle, how that goes well with your Chinese-style hairstyle, your mantle of peacock feathers, your petticoat of celadon and gold, your cinnamon bottoms and your shoes of jade…

Silk Clothing as an Economic Factor, Safavid Persia

Margaret A. Deppe

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Surviving articles of dress in Persia from the Safavid Empire (1502–1736) illustrate the extensive network of production and distribution of raw silk and silk goods throughout Asia and Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The economic role of silk textiles for garments and accessories was substantial. Already an important industry before Safavid times, production of silk increased under Shah Abbas I. Magnificent garments, carpets, and other textiles were produced for palace use and

History of Textiles of South Asia

Jasleen Dhamija

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

South Asia’s rich cultural heritage is expressed in the continuing tradition of textiles, going back nearly five thousand years. Although silk was an important textile very early, it was cotton, cultivated in most parts of South Asia and developed as a fabric, that was probably exported to other countries. Cultivated cotton, developed in the Indian subcontinent around 3000 b.c.e., was woven throughout India. South Asia was open to several contacts through trade, migrations, and conquest, enrichin

Archaeological Evidence: China and Inner Asia

Zhao Feng and Kuang Yanghua

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the twentieth century, archaeological finds relating to dress have been recovered in large quantities in China. While some of the garments were made specifically as grave goods, most, it is assumed, are garments used in life to celebrate status and position. These include figures in wood, pottery, jade, and stone, as well as depictions of human figures in murals, paintings, and embroideries.

North American Silk Industry

Jacqueline Field

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

By the early twentieth century, the U.S. silk industry was the largest in the world. It transformed silk, a historically scarce and expensive luxury, into a widely available and affordable fabric. Silk materials filtered into almost every kind of female dress, many articles of male dress, and all sorts of trimmings and accessories. An array of different silks—plain, patterned, colorful, lustrous, soft, rustling, light, heavy—to one degree or another brought the visual aesthetic and sensuous pleas

Raw Silk and Reeling

Jacqueline Field

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Silk Weighting

Jacqueline Field

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Textile Industry

Sara J. Kadolph and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Any overview of the textile industry in the United States and Canada will focus primarily on the United States until the latter part of the nineteenth century, as Canada and its textile production were still controlled by Britain until that time. Textile manufacture was one of the first mechanized industries to incorporate outwork production into its manufacturing procedures. An industry of hand-produced lace existed prior to the introduction of English lace machines in Ipswich, Massachusetts, in

Uzbek Textiles

Carter Malik

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

After the creation of the independent republic of Uzbekistan in 1991, Uzbek textiles, with their brilliant color combinations and decorative exuberance, drew much interest from the international community and fashion experts. Silk wall hangings, ceremonial robes, and ikat dresses from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries began to appear more often in private collections, galleries, museums, and boutiques around the world. Khan atlas (silk satin-weave ikat), suzani embroidery (needlework)

Paterson, New Jersey, Silk Industry

Mary Pluckhahn Masilamani

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Flowers in the Art of Dress across the World

Peter McNeil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

When an object or motif is universal, there is a tendency to trivialize it. This is undoubtedly the case with the theme of flowers in its relationship to fashion and textiles. The floral motif is cross-cultural and ubiquitous but is connected in highly specific ways to different systems of social organization, personal adornment, and religious practice. The ways in which flowers and their representations are used highlight attitudes toward covering the body and adorning the head, as well as compl

Italy

Elisabetta Merlo and Francesca Polese

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

If we use the expression Italian fashion to indicate the production of garments and accessories that are marked by distinctive and unique features universally associated with Italian culture and identity, then such a phenomenon appears only well after the political unification of the country (1861) and indeed is barely discernible prior to World War II. Moreover, even once the creations of Italian couturiers became celebrated in international markets beginning in the 1950s, Italy’s fashion scene

Silk

Giorgio Riello

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Silk, a natural fiber produced from silkworms, is not native to Europe. Of all natural fibers, silk has most preserved its exotic connotations: sensual, rich in texture, and unique for its shine. Natural silk remains the most appreciated fiber not just in Europe but globally. Its origin can be located in China and dates back to between 5000 and 3000 b.c.e. Archaeological evidence suggests that Chinese silk was discovered by Europeans as early as 500 b.c.e., but it took several centuries for silk

Sumptuary Laws

Irvin Cemil Schick

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuariae leges) are rules that attempt to regulate people’s habits of (luxury) consumption with respect to clothing, food, furniture, housing, and so forth. While they generally have economic underpinnings, they have also historically been used to regulate and reinforce social hierarchies and morals through restrictions on the purchase and display of such luxuries. The following excerpt from an Ottoman imperial edict issued in 1824 makes this clear: Whereas the popul

Footwear

Elizabeth Semmelhack

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Traditional footwear in Asia is diverse and reflects historical and cultural developments across this vast region. While most footwear has its origins in the particulars of daily life, such as the rigid-soled boots for northern horse riders using stirrups or rough plaited straw sandals that gave farmers extra traction on wet or slippery surfaces, throughout most societies, decisions about wearing or not wearing footwear, or when to wear it, were determined by other factors, including custom, soci

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