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Valentino

Lauren Bowes

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Yves Saint Laurent, Spring/Summer 1988 Haute Couture

Lorynn Divita

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Throughout his career, Yves Saint Laurent famously drew inspiration from all of the fine arts, including painting, opera, the ballet, literature, poetry, and the works of Shakespeare. The influence of various painters on Saint Laurent’s creations dates back to his famous fall/winter 1965 “Mondrian Poliakoff” collection. His spring/summer 1988 collection, a tribute to cubism and impressionism and the work of Georges Braque and Vincent Van Gogh, was a natural fit into his oeuvre, with jackets embro

Article

The omnipresent significance of the eighteenth century and the masked ball for the House of Dior found expression in the design of “Angie” for the “Masquerade and Bondage” collection, a short variation on 1760s court dress, paraphrasing the fashionable life and cruel fate of Marie Antoinette. Using the surface of the hip panels as a canvas for narrative and caricaturized embroideries, the dress becomes an epitome of storytelling through dressmaking, evoking crucial episodes of French history. Gal

Carven

Stephanie Edith Herold

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Chloé

Morna Laing

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Tomasz Starzewski

Nanna Marie Lund

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Zandra Rhodes, Spring/Summer 1984

Veronica Maldonado

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Rhodes’s spring/summer 1984 collection made its debut in London’s Ritz Carlton hotel. Having studied textiles before designing fashion, Rhodes’s garments utilize fabric with a high degree of detail and craftsmanship. This collection was no exception, with dresses made of embroidered chiffon, metallic sequined ensembles, and dresses encrusted with hanging pearls and crystals, all in pastel color schemes accented with blazes of magenta and deep cerulean. While a few typical 1980s body-conscious, sh

Norman Hartnell

Vanessa Semmens

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Givenchy Couture, Fall/Winter 1990

Aimee Williams

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Two years after the acquisition of Givenchy by Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessey (LVMH), Givenchy’s fall/winter 1990 collection struggled to negotiate its legacy as a couture line and produce designs to appeal to a contemporary clientele. Elements that had worked in favor of the house in the 1980s drew criticism. While other designers unstructured their silhouettes, Givenchy presented square shoulders on wool suits and evening wear alike. Gold lamé and organza dresses with short, dipping hemlines were

Pakistan

Nasreen Askari

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Pakistan, seat of one of the civilizations of the ancient world, was created as a country in 1947; historically, however, its location has made it a crucible in which influences from Greece, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and China have fused with the indigenous traditions of the region. The regional dress and textile traditions of Pakistan, the Pathan, the Punjabi, the Baluch, and the Sindhi, have evolved a range of forms, techniques, and designs that is a distillation not only of loca

Tsonga Dress and Fashion

Rayda Becker

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

All Tsonga in South Africa originate from Mozambique. A small group, they have a complex history involving various migrations and names; Tsonga now primarily denotes a language. In the early 1900s Tsonga women wore skirts made of imported cotton, and beaded jewelry. Later the skirts became shorter and fuller and are now made of wool. The main changes over the last century involve the upper body, the beaded necklaces worn in the 1930s giving way to blouses and T-shirts, worn with the minceka, two

Performance Dress in China and Taiwan

Alexandra B. Bonds, Dongshin Chang and Elizabeth Johnson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Over three hundred forms of indigenous theater entertainment incorporating song and music have evolved in China, with different forms of music-dramas being performed in specific regions throughout the country. Among these forms, Kunqu (songs of Kunshan) took shape in the Lower Yangtze region of China in the mid-sixteenth century, attained national popularity in the following two centuries, and is still thriving in the early twenty-first century. Jingju (capital drama), commonly known in the West

Beaded and Embroidered Accessories of the Peranakan Chinese

Hwei-Fe’n Cheah

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Peranakan Chinese in insular Southeast Asia trace their ancestry to Chinese migrants who settled in the Indonesian archipelago and Malay peninsula beginning around the seventeenth century. Peranakan Chinese culture is a mix of Chinese and local elements. As Dutch and British colonial rules were reinforced in the Netherlands Indies and Malay Peninsula, European ideas significantly influenced Peranakan Chinese society in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The geographically dispersed

Miao National Minority

Gina Corrigan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Today, the Miao ethnic minority live in southwestern China, their population totaling 8.9 million. Miao origins and migrations are controversial and poorly documented, but we know that attempts to subdue them have been difficult. Miao in remote mountain regions developed many garments, expressing cultural identity. In 2000 a book published in China illustrated 173 different styles of Miao dress. Following the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, the female population in the countryside again adopted trad

Slovak Embroidery

Oı’ga Danglová

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The oldest archeological evidence about embroidery in the territory of Slovakia dates to the third century b.c.e. In the Middle Ages, embroidery appeared on religious textiles and was worked by professional craftsmen. The first archive records about embroidery guilds in the territory of Slovakia date to the fifteenth century, referring to guilds of silk embroiderers in Košice and Bratislava. Inspired by the Renaissance penchant for luxury, embroidery was applied to clothing of the aristocracy and

Tiraz: Textiles and Dress with Inscriptions in Central and Southwest Asia

Margaret Anne Deppe

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The term tiraz comes from the Farsi word for “embroider.” In Arabic, the word tiraz means “embellishment” and, by extension, “fashion.” Tiraz describes the ornate Arabic script and associated designs on garments and other textile goods, as well as items adorned with them. Although inscribing the ruler’s name on textiles dates back thousands of years to pharaonic Egypt, tiraz is a distinctly Islamic form of decoration. Beautiful lettering was considered to be among the highest art forms in many cu

Kalabari Peoples of Nigeria

Joanne B. Eicher

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Kalabari Ijo have a long history as traders of cloth and apparel items in the Niger Delta. They traded with the world beyond their immediate boundaries of thirty-two islands found among mangrove swamps of the Niger River tributaries near the Atlantic Ocean. Their trading provided access to imported goods, particularly textiles, which they used and continue to use in creative ways. Rather than just borrow the textiles, they make them identifiable as uniquely Kalabari, a process that has been c

Azerbaijan

Lala Eldarova

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Azerbaijan lies on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, at the southeastern extremity of the mountainous Caucasus region. It has borders with Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, and Turkey. The development of Azerbaijani national dress reached its zenith in the nineteenth century, with the emergence of its own unique style, with many features being common to all parts of the country. The principles, rules, and customs governing its design, cut, and the way it should be worn reflected the unity of th

The Textile Tradition of Malaysia and Its Impact on Dress

Adline Abdul Ghani

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Maritime trade linked the Malay Peninsula to the world from as early as the first to the eleventh centuries. With the Indian Ocean to the west and the South China Sea to the east, the peninsula held a focal position along two major sailing routes. As an entrepôt connecting the East and West, the peninsula was also constantly exposed to new cultures, influences, ideas, technologies, and materials, and throughout history, trade activity in general has been inextricably linked to developments in loc

Liturgical Robes in New Zealand

Sandra Heffernan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Liturgical dress worn by members of the Roman Catholic Church played an important part in daily life and religious observances, and rituals from birth to death, in colonial New Zealand. In 1838 Marist Catholic missionaries landed in the north of New Zealand, where most of the twelve Catholic mission stations were established. At this time seventy thousand Māoris were dispersed throughout the country, and there was a small European settlement of approximately twenty thousand, mostly in the ports a

Lesage, François

Lydia Kamitsis

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

At the time of his father’s death, the embroidery house that Lesage inherited was among the most important and prestigious specialty companies of its type in the world. In 1924 his father, Albert, had taken over the business of the embroiderer Michonet. Michonet’s venerable firm, which was founded in 1858, had supplied the great names of couture of the belle epoque (Charles Frederick Worth, John Redfern, Jacques Doucet, Callot Soeurs) with beautiful embroidery to decorate their creations. The fir

Palestinian Women’s Dress

Widad Kawar and Sibba Einarsdóttir

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Palestine had a wide variety of traditional dress styles. Not only did every area have a different style, but often every village had its own distinctive dress, and sometimes the various large families living in one village would have a range of different styles. Occasionally, there were differences within the same family as women from different villages entered the family as wives and each brought her own embroidery traditions and clothing styles with her. All of this variety makes defining Pale

Jordanian Women’s Dress

Widad Kawar and Sibba Einarsdóttir

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, lies in the southern part of the Syrian Desert on the Gulf of Aqaba. It shares borders with Syria, Iraq, Israel, the West Bank, and Saudi Arabia. Much of the country is desert; however, in the northwest, there is a fertile agricultural region. Jordan has a long history that can be traced back to the Sumerian period in the second millennium b.c.e. and earlier. During its long and rich history, Jordan has been part of the Babylonian, Persian, Egyp

Turkish Embroidery

Sumru Belger Krody

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Embroidery and embroidered textiles offer a unique window into urban society in the Ottoman Empire. The history of the urban embroidery tradition from the sixteenth century on parallels that of the Ottoman Empire with its changing geography, economy, and social life. Embroidery was one of the art forms practiced both commercially and domestically by a large portion of the population in the empire. Both men and women embroidered textiles that were to be used personally or sold. Gender was the dete

Twenty-First-Century Qatari Abayeh Fashions

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Women in Qatar, like many other conservative Muslim Middle Eastern countries, dress in a black robe, the abayeh, and long headscarf, the shaylah. They are adhering to the Qur’anic directive to dress modestly and interpret this as wearing all-covering robes and concealing their hair. There is little agreement on why the women “cover.” Some scholars state that it provides privacy and protection from the eyes of male strangers. Others believe that by wearing plain, anonymous robes, women protect men

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