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Fiber Classification: Manufactured Fibers

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Manufactured cellulose fibers are made from plant material that is processed with chemicals. This processing causes a permanent change in the structure of the fiber. For this reason, although the fibers are made from natural ingredients, they are classified as manufactured fibers. For a list of properties appropriate to all manufactured cellulose fibers, see Table 2.2, Properties Common to All Cellulose Fibers (page 16), and Table 3.1, Properties of Individual Manufactured Fibers (pages 24–25).

Fiber Classification: Synthetic Fibers

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

By 1939, the process of manufacturing fibers extended to using resources such as petroleum products, petrochemicals, natural gas, and coal. The raw materials undergo complex processes necessary to spin the materials into fiber. DuPont created the first purely chemical fiber, called fiber 66. Today this fiber is called nylon.

Getting the Knack of Knits

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Knit fabric is a stretchable material constructed on huge knitting machines and formed by a series of horizontal interlocking loops (see Figure 1.1). The sizes of the needles and yarns used determine whether the knit will be fine or chunky. Knit fabrics come in a variety of fibers and vary in type, structure, texture, and weight. Some knits are knitted with a smooth surface. Other surfaces are textured and may be knotty, nubby, loopy, brushed, embossed, or textured. How the loops are arranged det

The Knit Family of Slopers

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The sloper system is a method of creating slopers for drafting patterns for garments constructed from stretch knit fabrics. As previously discussed in Chapter 1, in the “How Working with Knits Differs from Working with Wovens” section, slopers for woven fabrics (incorporating dart and ease) cannot be used to draft the patterns for stretch knit fabrics. Stretch knit garments require unique slopers that do not have darts or ease incorporated into the slopers. The fabric’s stretch replaces the darts

Top Slopers and Patterns

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

In this chapter you make a set of top slopers to match each stretch category. You also draft and grade a sleeve sloper into each stretch category to fit the armholes (armscye) of the top slopers.

Dress Slopers and Patterns

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

A dress-piece is a partial pattern extending from the hipline to knee length in each stretch category. Table 2.2 on p. 17 indicates that dresses are drafted from the top slopers. You add the dress-piece to the hipline of the top slopers to create the dress slopers.

Jacket, Cardigan, Sweater, and Sweater-Jacket Slopers and Patterns

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

In this chapter, you develop slopers for jackets, cardigans, and sweater-jackets. They can be fitted, loose-fit, or oversized. You must use the appropriate slopers to suit the type of knit, style, and fit you envision for your design. Fitted and loose-fit cardigan muslins have been cut, stitched, and placed on the form in Figures 8.3 and 8.4. For the opening, a 1” extension is added to the center front.

Skirt Slopers and Patterns

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

In this chapter, you create a set of skirt slopers from the two-way stretch hip foundations that were drafted in Chapter 5. Refer to Table 2.1 on p. 16 to see how the hip foundation transforms into a skirt sloper. The “Skirt Sloper” is part of the knit family of slopers in Table 2.2 on p. 17.

Pant Slopers and Patterns

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

In this chapter, you learn how to draft a set of pant slopers in each stretch category (minimal stretch, moderate stretch, very stretchy, and super stretchy). You create the pant slopers from the hip foundation that was drafted in Chapter 5. Look back at the Knit Family in Table 2.1 on p. 16 to see how the slopers for pants evolve. In addition, Table 2.2 lists other pant variations that you can draft from the pant slopers.

Lingerie Slopers and Patterns

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Before drafting patterns for lingerie, determine the stretch capacity of the knit you plan to work with using the stretch gauge in Figure 1.6 on p. 9. Then choose the appropriate stretch category of top slopers to draft the patterns. There are two ways the slopers can be selected. The first way is to use the slopers that match the stretchiness of your chosen knit. The second way is to choose a different sloper to create a roomier fit with more ease. (Refer to “How to Choose Slopers” in Chapter 2

Swimwear Slopers and Patterns

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

A swimsuit is a close-fitting article of clothing used for swimming and sunbathing. It can be one piece or a two-piece bra and panty ensemble. A swimsuit needs to be practical and wearable, and it must stay secure at all times to be swim-ready. To accomplish this, you need to purchase the correct supplies.

Getting to Know Knits and Stretch Fabrics

Sharon Czachor

Source: Sewing with Knits and Stretch Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Garments constructed from knitted fabric conform more easily to the shape of the body, reducing the fitting and construction details while retaining the shape. This allows the stretch of the fabric to replace the ease that is needed in designing woven fabric garments. The fitting for garments in stretch fabric is very different from woven fabrics and is addressed at the patternmaking stage. For further information, refer to Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics by Julie Cole (Fairchild Books, 2

Preparing Knits and Stretch Wovens for Stitching

Sharon Czachor

Source: Sewing with Knits and Stretch Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Whether the chosen fabric is a knit or a stretch woven, it’s important to identify the right side and wrong side of the fabric (Figure 4.1a and b). The wrong side of the fabric is where the markings are placed, where interfacing or stabilizers of any kind are placed, and where the construction stitches are sewn. Because of the diversity of fibers used in creating knit fabrics and stretch woven fabrics, the fibers react differently to marking pens, pencils, chalk, or wax marking utensils, even us

Stitching Knits with a Sewing Machine

Sharon Czachor

Source: Sewing with Knits and Stretch Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The supplies you will need to stitch samples of various stitches, seams, hems and techniques are a tape measure, scissors, marking utensil, seam ripper. You will also need the following.

Grading Stretch Garments

Kathy K. Mullet

Source: Concepts of Pattern Grading. Techniques for Manual and Computer Grading, 3rd Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Grading garments made of stretch fabrics differs from grading garments made of rigid fabrics when the garments utilize the stretch as part of their fit and function. Garments in this category are actually cut smaller than the body dimensions for the size they are designed to fit. Swimwear, leotards, and unitards are examples of garments that fall into this category (Figure 9.1). These garments are referred to as stretch garments in this text. Fabrics that have enough stretch and recovery utilize

Synthetic And Special Application Fibers

Virginia Hencken Elsasser

Source: Textiles. Concepts and Principles, 3rd Edition, 2010, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The first synthetic fiber, nylon, was introduced in 1939 by DuPont. The fiber, which was as sheer as silk but much stronger, revolutionized the hosiery industry. (See CP-6) Since their introduction, chemically synthesized fibers or synthetic fibers, also called noncellulosic manufactured fibers or chemical fibers, have become prominent in the textile industry. The primary synthetic fibers are acrylic, modacrylic, nylon, olefin, polyester, and spandex.

Underwear

Grace Evans

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The fashionable silhouette has gone through bewildering changes during the last two hundred years, and these would not have been possible without the shapes created beneath. Underwear and outerwear progressed in tandem. Underwear designers responded to prevailing styles of fashionable dress, and fashion designers built and relied upon the capabilities of structural underpinnings as they developed. These changes were, in turn, influenced by key social, economic, and technological developments, whi

Spandex

Annie Gullingsrud

Foreword by Lynda Grose

Illustrations by Amy Williams

Source: Fashion Fibers. Designing For Sustainability, 2001, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Spandex was developed as an alternative to traditional natural fibers, since it can stretch and then snap back to its original form, whereas most natural fibers cannot.

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