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The Dress Form, Tools, and Terminology

Connie Amaden-Crawford

Source: The Art of Fashion Draping, 5th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Dress formmanufacturers/suppliersDress formarms forArm, dress formIn draping, the dress form is used to manipulate flat fabric to fit the curves of the body accurately. It is used to visualize what a pattern should look like in relationship to the figure. Fabric is prepared, cut, pinned, and contoured to the dress form’s shape to achieve a desired pattern. Usually the Grain crosswiselengthwiseLengthwise grainlengthwise Crossgrain/crosswise grainGrain crosswisegrain of the fabric hangs vertical to

Menswear Retail and Trends

Aki Choklat

Source: Menswear Trends, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Retailtrend services by Retail – referring to the broader concept of the commercial activity of selling and buying – is one of the largest sectors to use trend services. Trend data and information can be used in numerous ways and in various sectors of menswear retail. For example, it can be used in the design of the actual product, if the retailer has its own brand, or it can be used in buying as an investment guide for the next season. Merchandisers work closely with buyers and with designers in

Marketing compliance for the fashion industry

Deanna Clark-Esposito

Source: A Practical Guide to Fashion Law and Compliance, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The US Federal Trade CommissionFederal Trade Commission (FTC) governs the prevention of unfair or deceptive acts or practices, which includes print and online advertising, marketing, and sales messaging. Setting both the guidelines and parameters for determining when a marketing claim would be considered deceptive, the FTC also has enforcement powers to penalize those marketers and advertisers whose content it concludes is deceptive to the average consumer.

Importing fashion merchandise

Deanna Clark-Esposito

Source: A Practical Guide to Fashion Law and Compliance, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

importingglobal systemIf you look around the average American household today you will quickly discover that most of the articles there are from other countries. You would find the same result when examining the labels on your wearing apparel and may even realize that 100 percent of your clothes have been imported with much of it from China, as the 2015 dollar value in apparel imports from China alone totaled $30,540,941,000.http://otexa.trade.gov/msrcty/v5700.htm (viewed on August 23, 2016).

Exporting for the fashion industry

Deanna Clark-Esposito

Source: A Practical Guide to Fashion Law and Compliance, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

A rise in an awareness of the importance of reshoring has been especially noticeable in the fashion industry, and particularly so within cities which had enjoyed historical economic prominence thanks to the industry. One such example is that of New York CityNew York City, where several notable facilities have opened up to support local garment manufacturing and fashion innovation such as the Brooklyn Design + Fashion Accelerator of Pratt College, and Manufacture NY.

Understanding Product Trends: What Customers Buy

Richard Clodfelter

Source: Retail Buying. From Basics to Fashion, 6th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

product line,As a buyer, you must plan and control the kinds of products that will be offered in your store or department. In other words, you must be concerned with the merchandise mix,merchandise mix—the types or mix of products that are available for customers to purchase. The merchandise mix that you select should meet the specific needs of your customers. It must be frequently monitored because an appropriate mix today might not contain the right products tomorrow.

Selecting Vendors and Building Partnerships

Richard Clodfelter

Source: Retail Buying. From Basics to Fashion, 6th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

wholesalers,vendors,wholesalers,vendors,manufacturers,middleman,intermediaries,buying offices,types of,For some product categories, you must not only choose from many different vendors, but you must also decide whether to purchase directly from the producer or from a middleman, an intermediary between the buyer and seller. Again, careful analysis should allow you to choose the one that best meets your needs. Vendors are typically classified as (1) manufacturers, (2) wholesalers, (3) manufacturers

Locating Sources in Foreign Markets

Richard Clodfelter

Source: Retail Buying. From Basics to Fashion, 6th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Making the decision to import purchases from foreign sources requires that you prepare yourself for entering the global marketplace. Learn as much as you can about the people,brands generics,merchandise,merchandise quality of,global marketplace choosing the right sources,identifying reasons to buy from,buying,benefits of foreign sources,the culture, and the retailing practices of any country that you are considering as a foreign source. Possibly even learn a new language or at least a few key phr

Internationalization of Retailing

Brenda Sternquist and Elizabeth B. Goldsmith

Source: International Retailing, 3rd Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

Prognosis for the Future

Brenda Sternquist and Elizabeth B. Goldsmith

Source: International Retailing, 3rd Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

Global Fashion Business

Elaine Stone and Sheryl A. Farnan

Source: The Dynamics of Fashion, 5th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Buying merchandise for a retailer has become a global enterprise, involving planning, organization, and hard work, as well as extensive knowledge of the world's global fashion markets and related trade, import, and export agreements. Our discussion of global marketing and its buyers and sellers begins with understanding how the world's market centers developed and operate. We then discuss how importing, product development, and trade agreements work between the United States and its trading partn

Men's Apparel

Elaine Stone and Sheryl A. Farnan

Source: The Dynamics of Fashion, 5th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The oldest of the domestic apparel industries, the menswear industry gave birth to the women's and children's wear industries. It got its start in the late 1700s. Prior to that, the rich patronized tailor Slop shops,shops, where their clothing was custom-made or fitted to them. Everyone else wore homemade clothing.

Product Development

Elaine Stone and Sheryl A. Farnan

Source: The Dynamics of Fashion, 5th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Product development,merchandiser role in,Product development,designer role in,Knock-offs,Anchors,American Apparel and Footwear Association,Product lines of apparel are created and styled for wholesale presentation several times, or seasons, per year. In the fashion industries, a product line is simply called a line. A line encompasses not only the individual item of apparel or accessories but the entire season's production from that manufacturer as well. The term line is used for moderate- and po

Leather and Fur

Elaine Stone and Sheryl A. Farnan

Source: The Dynamics of Fashion, 5th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Making leather is a highly specialized and time-consuming operation. Because of the time involved, the leather industry must anticipate and predict trends far in advance of other textile suppliers. Leather producers typically decide what production method, textures, finishes, and colors they will use eight to sixteen months before a leather reaches apparel and accessory manufacturers. As a result, those in other fashion industries often look to the leather industry for leadership, particularly in

The Business of Fashion

Elaine Stone and Sheryl A. Farnan

Source: The Dynamics of Fashion, 5th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The business of fashion contributes significantly to the economy of the United States through the materials and services it purchases, the wages and taxes it pays, and the goods and services it produces. The fashion business is one of the largest employers in the country. Even though employment has declined by almost half since the industry boom in the early 1970s, the fashion business remains one of the largest employers in the country. According to the Department of Commerce, the United States

The Textile Cycle: From Fiber to Fashion

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The text begins with the smallest part of a textile—fiber—and follows the textile cycle through to the final step, finishing. With increasing demand for more versatile and functional fabrics, finishing and care have become major areas of interest within the textile world, unlimited in their commercial potential. For example, one segment of the textile industry is devoted to fibers and finishing processes that resist stains. In their search for more stain-resistant fabrics, researchers have develo

Footwear Design, Construction, and Production

Fiona Armstrong-Gibbs and Tamsin McLaren

Source: Marketing Fashion Footwear. The Business of Shoes, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Footwear production is costly and time consuming. Historically, shoes would have been made in the country where they were destined to be sold to the end consumer, where footwear “brands” were signs of good quality and durability rather than style statements. However, in recent times the inevitable and unstoppable development of offshore production, speed of change in fashion, and consumer requirements have meant that the location of footwear production has changed dramatically.

The Global Footwear Trade

Fiona Armstrong-Gibbs and Tamsin McLaren

Source: Marketing Fashion Footwear. The Business of Shoes, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Over the past twenty years, the developed world has rapidly increased its consumption of footwear. In order to fulfill Western appetites for more fashion at a cheaper price, this demand led to sourcing further afield to countries in the developing world. Footwear is not a straightforward product to make; it is labor intensive, and where there are large pools of willing workers, its production will thrive. Today’s sourcing strategies coupled with the rapid growth of consumerism through the retail

Step 3: Micro-Level Supplier Analysis

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Through PESTS (political, economic, social, technological, and sustainability environments) analysis, a sourcer narrows the choices of countries for a specific sourcing project. After this step, a sourcer looks into specific factories within these countries, and compares each factory’s advantages and disadvantages as a potential supplier. This chapter discusses the third stage of the seven core steps of global sourcing—micro-level analysis for supplier selection (see Figure 7.1).

Step 4: Purchase Order and Methods of Payment

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Once initial costs are estimated and the supplier is selected, sourcers then create a purchase order, a legal sales contract. A purchase order stipulates what has been agreed between the supplier and the sourcer, including social and environmental compliance conditions, product details, quantity, price, delivery date and method, packing instruction, quality assurance policies, and so on. Methods of payment are also negotiated at this stage. Some methods of payment require a purchase order as a re

Step 5: Preproduction, Production, and Quality Assurance

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Upon completion of the purchase order, the supplier starts preparing raw materials and production techniques for main production. If the letter of credit is an agreed-on method of payment, the sourcer opens a letter of credit to the supplier through the bank. The supplier then can use that guarantee of payment by the issuing bank to finance raw material purchases or production, labor costs, and other expenses. Most sourcers in today’s marketplace are heavily involved in preproduction stages with

Step 6: Logistics and Importing Processes

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Once production is complete and goods are shipped, sourcing personnel work with the import and/or logistics department to legally import foreign goods into the sourcer’s country. Logistics has been of increasing importance in recent years as sustainability efforts have increased. Shipping’s impact on climate change, air quality, noise, and waste has been criticized and “greener” (or environmentally friendly) logistics options have been suggested by many logistics companies. In addition, each coun

Step 7: Sourcing Performance Evaluation

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

A sourcer’s main responsibilities are fulfilled when finished goods are legally entered into the sourcer’s country and arranging for physical distribution. At the end of each sourcing project, sourcers must evaluate their performance and make suggestions to better future sourcing projects. The results of a sourcing evaluation can directly affect new product development, completing the circle of the whole global sourcing process. Typically, most business activities are examined from the cost and p

Current and Future Global Sourcing

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Port, customs, and logistics issues are another macroeconomic situation with which today’s sourcing executives are concerned (Pious & Burns, 2015). This concern reflects recent port and logistics disruptions as a result of several truck drivers’ and port-workers’ strikes since 2013 in the United States. In 2015, 20,000 or more union workers of Pacific Maritime Association went on a labor strike, causing a suspension of the loading and unloading of containers and other cargo ships for almost a wee

Introduction to Global Sourcing

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

With a clear understanding of global sourcing and supply chain, this section goes deep into global sourcing in the textile and apparel supply chain. As discussed previously, there are various members in the global textile and apparel supply chain. Figure 1.4 illustrates the interconnected relationships among various supply chain members in the global textile and apparel industry. More specifically, the ultimate suppliers in the upstream of the textile and apparel supply chain would be fiber produ

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