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Introduction to Global Sourcing

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

With a clear understanding of global sourcing and supply chain, this section goes deep into global sourcing in the textile and apparel supply chain. As discussed previously, there are various members in the global textile and apparel supply chain. Figure 1.4 illustrates the interconnected relationships among various supply chain members in the global textile and apparel industry. More specifically, the ultimate suppliers in the upstream of the textile and apparel supply chain would be fiber produ

Theoretical Perspective of Global Sourcing

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The five key theories are discussed to explain international trade: (1) the law of supply and demand in international trade, (2) comparative advantage theory, (3) competitive advantage theory of nations, (4) fragmentation theory, and (5) industry life cycle theory.

Trends in Global Sourcing

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Global sourcing has fundamentally changed the nature of the global textile and apparel industry. Today, the world exports over US$800 billion worth of textiles and apparel annually (World Trade Organization [WTO], 2015). China has been the leading exporter of textiles during the 2000s and 2010s, with its export shares rising from 4.6 percent in 1980 to over 35 percent in recent years. The 28 member countries of the European Union (EU-28) collectively accounted for 36.7 percent of exports in 2000,

Global Sourcing Options

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Chapter 1 explained global sourcing as a set of business processes and activities by which businesses acquire and deliver components or fully finished products or services from outside the organization. A decision on sourcing or global sourcing is directly related to a company’s strategic decision on whether to “make or buy.” Make in this context means that a company produces parts or products on its own. Buy refers to sourcing parts or products from other organizations. Many factors must be cons

Step 1: New Product Development

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Sourcing personnel have a variety of responsibilities throughout the global supply chain. As discussed in Chapter 1, the objective of sourcing is centered on acquisition and delivery of parts or finished products and, therefore, sourcing personnel are mainly responsible for business activities related to finding and attaining the parts or products, and delivering such products to the right places at the right times. In addition to these core sourcing activities, sourcing personnel, as members of

Step 3: Micro-Level Supplier Analysis

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Through PESTS (political, economic, social, technological, and sustainability environments) analysis, a sourcer narrows the choices of countries for a specific sourcing project. After this step, a sourcer looks into specific factories within these countries, and compares each factory’s advantages and disadvantages as a potential supplier. This chapter discusses the third stage of the seven core steps of global sourcing—micro-level analysis for supplier selection (see Figure 7.1).

Step 4: Purchase Order and Methods of Payment

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Once initial costs are estimated and the supplier is selected, sourcers then create a purchase order, a legal sales contract. A purchase order stipulates what has been agreed between the supplier and the sourcer, including social and environmental compliance conditions, product details, quantity, price, delivery date and method, packing instruction, quality assurance policies, and so on. Methods of payment are also negotiated at this stage. Some methods of payment require a purchase order as a re

Step 5: Preproduction, Production, and Quality Assurance

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Upon completion of the purchase order, the supplier starts preparing raw materials and production techniques for main production. If the letter of credit is an agreed-on method of payment, the sourcer opens a letter of credit to the supplier through the bank. The supplier then can use that guarantee of payment by the issuing bank to finance raw material purchases or production, labor costs, and other expenses. Most sourcers in today’s marketplace are heavily involved in preproduction stages with

Step 6: Logistics and Importing Processes

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Once production is complete and goods are shipped, sourcing personnel work with the import and/or logistics department to legally import foreign goods into the sourcer’s country. Logistics has been of increasing importance in recent years as sustainability efforts have increased. Shipping’s impact on climate change, air quality, noise, and waste has been criticized and “greener” (or environmentally friendly) logistics options have been suggested by many logistics companies. In addition, each coun

Step 7: Sourcing Performance Evaluation

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

A sourcer’s main responsibilities are fulfilled when finished goods are legally entered into the sourcer’s country and arranging for physical distribution. At the end of each sourcing project, sourcers must evaluate their performance and make suggestions to better future sourcing projects. The results of a sourcing evaluation can directly affect new product development, completing the circle of the whole global sourcing process. Typically, most business activities are examined from the cost and p

Current and Future Global Sourcing

Jung E. Ha-Brookshire

Source: Global Sourcing in the Textile and Apparel Industry, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Port, customs, and logistics issues are another macroeconomic situation with which today’s sourcing executives are concerned (Pious & Burns, 2015). This concern reflects recent port and logistics disruptions as a result of several truck drivers’ and port-workers’ strikes since 2013 in the United States. In 2015, 20,000 or more union workers of Pacific Maritime Association went on a labor strike, causing a suspension of the loading and unloading of containers and other cargo ships for almost a wee

The Role of Product Development in the Apparel Supply Chain

Sandra Keiser, Deborah Vandermar and Myrna B. Garner

Source: Beyond Design. The Synergy of Apparel Product Development, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

“As a fashion designer, I was always aware that I was not an artist, because I was creating something that was made to be sold, marketed, used, and ultimately discarded.”

Planning for Success

Sandra Keiser, Deborah Vandermar and Myrna B. Garner

Source: Beyond Design. The Synergy of Apparel Product Development, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

“Without strategy, execution is aimless. Without execution, strategy is useless.”

Garment Styling

Sandra Keiser, Deborah Vandermar and Myrna B. Garner

Source: Beyond Design. The Synergy of Apparel Product Development, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

“I wish I had invented blue jeans. They have expression, modesty, sex appeal, simplicity—all I hope for in my clothes.”

Sizing and Fit Specifications

Sandra Keiser, Deborah Vandermar and Myrna B. Garner

Source: Beyond Design. The Synergy of Apparel Product Development, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

“In analyzing how my competitors communicate fit, I saw a place, an opportunity where we could first use models that have more average size figures and also develop a size chart that is easily understandable . . . I want to gain trust and loyalty with our customer base.”

A Product Development Perspective On Quality

Sandra Keiser, Deborah Vandermar and Myrna B. Garner

Source: Beyond Design. The Synergy of Apparel Product Development, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

“Employees . . . who work in quality . . . must be the voice of the consumer. They need to know and use information from all facets of the industry because developing a quality product through design, production, and delivery is both a science and an art.”

The Role of Sourcing

Sandra Keiser, Deborah Vandermar and Myrna B. Garner

Source: Beyond Design. The Synergy of Apparel Product Development, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

“Every time you spend money, you are casting a vote for the kind of world you want.”

Pricing and Costing

Sandra Keiser, Deborah Vandermar and Myrna B. Garner

Source: Beyond Design. The Synergy of Apparel Product Development, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

“Expect more, pay less”

Suppliers, Sourcing, and Communication

David Shaw and Dimitri Koumbis

Source: Fashion Buying. From Trend Forecasting to Shop Floor, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The fashion designer<>buyer relationship is very close—however, it is ultimately the buyer who makes the final decisions and takes responsibility for putting products into the range.

Tailored Clothing

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

1 First, block off the structure on an underdrawing.

The Business of Fashion

Elaine Stone and Sheryl A. Farnan

Source: In Fashion, 3rd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Fashion is a business, affected by the same technological advances, investment patterns, and economic forces that affect other major businesses in the world. Fashion is not just limited to apparel, and it impacts our complete lifestyle as well as the products that we buy. Fashion influences the automobile, housing, and entertainment industries, and like these industries, it is shaped by the basic principles of business and economics.

Product Development

Elaine Stone and Sheryl A. Farnan

Source: In Fashion, 3rd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Apparel manufacturers seeking to serve today’s world-class brands and retailers will need a continued uptick in their product development and design skills, an ability to innovate in both product and process, savvy risk management, and operational transparency.SusanS.Nichols, “Product Development, Innovation in Demand from Top-Tier Retailers: (Exclusive Report From SPESA),”Apparel, July 2010, p. 28.

Superheroes and the fashion of being unfashionable

Barbara Brownie and Danny Graydon

Source: The Superhero Costume. Identity and disguise in fact and fiction, 2016, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Those superhero costumes that remain most static over time are largely symbolic. When costumes are utilitarian, as with Iron Man (character)Iron Man’s suit, extreme transformation is justifiable as a technological development. By contrast, the costumes of Superman (character)Superman and Wonder WomanWonder Woman, which do little to enhance their performance, remain relatively consistent. Such garments function through stylistic or, following Barthes, RolandBarthes, linguistic expression, more tha

Superhero cosplay

Barbara Brownie and Danny Graydon

Source: The Superhero Costume. Identity and disguise in fact and fiction, 2016, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

re-enactmentThe notion of a fan has moved beyond “older ideas of media spectatorship” that involve little more than direct consumption of a cultural artifact (Flemming, 2007, p. 16). participatory fandomParticipatory fandom involves tangential activities which expand upon the fictional world and blur boundaries with reality. “Fans create a fan culture with its own systems of production and distribution that forms . . . a ‘shadow cultural economy’ that lies outside that of the cultural industries

Ten: Quality, In the Nick of Time: Shinola

Joseph H. Hancock

Source: Brand Story. Cases and Explorations in Fashion Branding, 2nd Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

A 2014 Economist article titled “Mo’ time for Motown” lightheartedly related the history of Shinola. Tom Kartsotis, the founder of Bedrock Manufacturing (named for the famous Flintstone’s cartoon’s home-town), bought the name for the company from a longtime brand of shoe polish (founded in 1907) that was best known for the slogan “You can’t tell shit from Shinola.” This was absolute perfection for Kartsotis, who believes that this company can someday become the largest manufacturer of high-qualit

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