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Shifts and Balances: 1900–1920s

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution 2014

Book chapter

A dynamic new figure entered the pattern enterprise in the first decade of the new century. Condé Nast was adept at promotion and was attracted to the pattern industry. He organized the Home Pattern Company and distributed dress patterns in an arrangement with Ladies’ Home Journal in 1905 (Seebohm 1982: 32). The Ladies’ Home Journal was an influential women’s periodical with a circulation of 1,000,000 (Mott 1938: vol. 4, 545). Nast had remarkable marketing skills and successfully promoted pattern

Home Front Clothing Initiatives

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Greenland

Cunera Buijs

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The extremes of the Arctic climate set Greenland dress apart from dress in the rest of West Europe. It is made from the skins and furs of animals and birds and is highly adapted to the conditions and lifestyle of the Arctic people. Even so there are distinctive regional dress cultures of the West Greenlanders (Kilaamiut), Northwest Greenlanders (Inughuit), and East Greenlanders (Tunumiit). It was only in the twentieth century that the dress of Greenlanders began to be influenced by dress in the r

Ireland

Síle de Cléir

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The situation regarding the various types of dress in Ireland in the period between the beginning of the nineteenth and the end of the twentieth centuries is a complex one. It is useful, perhaps, in this context to see dress in Ireland at this time as a continuum: folk dress at one end, characterized by locally produced fabrics and traditional aesthetics and deeply embedded in a local social and cultural context; and fashionable dress at the other, with a wider choice of materials and styles conn

The Garment Industry and Retailing in Canada

Cynthia Cooper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The apparel industry is the tenth-largest manufacturing sector in Canada. Apparel is manufactured in all provinces and territories. T. Eaton Company was a department store that operated from 1869 to 1999 and became a household name in Canada as a mail order company. As one of the early large manufacturers, it led the way in vertical integration. Eaton’s introduced its first mail order catalog in 1884, a thirty-two-page booklet listing department store merchandise. While a wide variety of merchand

The Pattern Industry

Carol Anne Dickson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The pattern industry in the United States and Canada had as its antecedents a number of earlier attempts to simplify the making of garments. The first patterns, made by cloistered monks, consisted of only two pieces. In the thirteenth century, French master tailor Charles Daillac began making his patterns out of thin pieces of wood. In the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, fashion journals began to appear, illustrating and describing the increasingly complex fashions of the times. In

The Fashion Industry

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The origin of garment making is traceable to when humans started covering their bodies. Western clothes changed from the unconstructed dress of the ancient Mediterranean world to the more structured garments of the late Middle Ages. Western apparel became more intricate, requiring increasingly specialized skills for its construction. Before the Industrial Revolution that began in England in the latter half of the eighteenth century, making clothes was an arduous task, and quality garments were an

Stitched and Shaped Garments

Kalyan Krishna

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sewn garments are rarely seen in early Indian sculptures, although they were worn by attendants or foreigners. Stitched garments were allegedly introduced in India in the early Christian era, when tribes migrated from Central Asia, or through the coming of Islam. Early Buddhist literature, however, contains several references to stitched clothing. During the Gupta period (approximately 280 to 550 c.e.), fully tailored, partly stitched, and unstitched costumes were fashionable. By the late twelfth

Nigeria Overview

John Picton

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A broad if highly oversimplistic view of dress and dress history in Nigeria would probably begin with a contrast between textiles wrapped around the body—a complex of traditions of the forests and southern savannas—and textiles cut and sewn to make garments—practices loosely associated with, but, historically, not wholly dependent on, the advent of Islam in the Sahel and savanna regions. Thereafter, however, the account becomes endlessly complicated because of (a) the interpenetration of the two

Home Production

Tone Rasch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothes are connected to necessity as well as to luxury. The production of them can be viewed the same way. Many clothes have historically been produced at home but in different contexts. Sewing and needlework have been paid work, hobbies, and a part of domestic work during the last couple of centuries. In the early twentieth century, many (if not most) clothes and garments were made at home. This situation has changed, although textiles and clothing are still important parts of housekeeping in t

England

Naomi E.A. Tarrant

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In 1800, the people of England dressed in the general West European clothing style that was worn by all fashionable people. Wealth determined what a person could afford to wear but not the style. There was no folk dress, so the general impression was that wealthy people wore the same styles as their workers, with only the quality showing the difference. The poor acquired garments from secondhand clothes dealers or as gifts from wealthier family members or friends, charities, and employers, as wel

Shopping, Sewing, Networking, Complaining: Consumer Practices and the Relationship between State and Society

Judd Stitziel

Source: Fashioning Socialism. Clothing, Politics, and Consumer Culture in East Germany 2005

Book chapter

Starting already in the late 1940s, East Germans embarked on shopping trips with very specific desires and went from store to store and even from city to city in efforts to satisfy them.LAB, C Rep. 106, Nr. 142, Aktenvermerk, Köhler, Planök. Abt., Berlin, 19 March 1949. During the first major stage in the elimination of rationing for clothing and shoes in February 1951, a state trade official remarked that “the streets offered an almost peacetime-like picture, that is, women are beginning to sele

Textile Art Production in Paraguay

Christina Turner

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Textiles in Paraguay have primarily a European, rather than an indigenous, heritage. There are three primary hand-sewing techniques that Paraguayans distinguish as carriers of their identity. Paraguayans are unique in being the only culturally Hispanic national population in Latin America that speaks an indigenous language, Guaraní, as their first language. The Guaraní names for these three techniques reflect this interesting paradox: ñandutí (“spiderweb,” a circular embroidered lace), aõ po’í (l

‘The Lady’s Economical Assistant’ of 1808

Janet Arnold

Source: The Culture of Sewing. Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking 1999

Book chapter

No one who has not been a frequent visitor in the homes of the poor, is aware of the extravagance and waste usual among women of a humble dress, arising from their total ignorance in matters of cutting out and needlework, nor how much instruction they want on these points even to the making of a petticoat and a pinafore. The same ignorance and unskilfulness, and the same consequent waste of laborious and scanty earnings is common among our female household servants; who by putting out their cloth

Patterns of Respectability: Publishing, Home Sewing and the Dynamics of Class and Gender 1870–1914

Christopher Breward

Source: The Culture of Sewing. Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking 1999

Book chapter

The amber sunshine poured in through the muslin curtains, drenching the room with light. It was a little room, plainly but nattily furnished. Everything in it was faded and touched with age; it was a clear, bright, honourable age, however, and not unlovely. A bowl of flowers stood on a table against the crisp white curtain; other flowers ranged in pots, crowded the window sill. There was a sewing machine in a corner – idle for the day was Sunday, and a great straw work-basket overflowing with ree

Patterns of Choice: Women’s and Children’s Clothing in the Wallis Archive, York Castle Museum

Mary M. Brooks

Source: The Culture of Sewing. Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking 1999

Book chapter

The Wallis family was a financially secure, middle-class Quaker family living in Darlington, County Durham, in northern England. Amy Mounsey married Anthony Wallis, a schools’ inspector, in 1910 and moved to live in Penrith, Cumbria. She had three children: Edward, Henry and Rachel. (Figure 10.1) In the 1930s, Rachel studied music in London and Vienna, while there changing to studying architecture. (Clegg 1998) After her marriage, she moved to Cambridge and, as Rachel Rostas, combined architectur

On the Margins: Theorizing the History and Significance of Making and Designing Clothes at Home

Cheryl Buckley

Source: The Culture of Sewing. Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking 1999

Book chapter

Arguably an account that addresses such questions requires a new way of speaking and a new position from which to speak, as a number of feminist writers have argued. (Alexander 1994; Braidotti 1994; hooks 1991; Massey 1994; Morris 1988; Roberts 1984, 1995; Steedman 1985)

Made at Home by Clever Fingers: Home Dressmaking in Edwardian England

Barbara Burman

Source: The Culture of Sewing. Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking 1999

Book chapter

I was busily at work on my dress yesterday evening (by the way, what a deal of work there is in a dress!) Diary entry 1905

Introduction

Barbara Burman

Source: The Culture of Sewing. Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking 1999

Book chapter

history is not the prerogative of the historian, nor even as postmodernism contends, a historian’s ‘invention’. It is, rather, a social form of knowledge; the work, in any given instance, of a thousand different hands. If this is true, the point of address in any discussion of historiography should not be the work of the individual scholar, nor yet rival schools of interpretation, but rather the ensemble of activities and practices in which ideas of history are embedded or a dialectic of past-pre

Wearily Moving Her Needle: Army Officers’ Wives and Sewing in the Nineteenth- Century American West

Julie A. Campbell

Source: The Culture of Sewing. Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking 1999

Book chapter

The earliest tailor’s patterns appeared in Juan de Alcega’s works dating from 1580. Diderot’s L’Encyclopédie Diderot et D’Alembert: Arts de l’habillement played a crucial role during the Enlightenment to disseminate practical knowledge. Published in 1776, the pattern drafts were the first which were generally available to the public. Manuals with full-size patterns and pattern drafts written for charitable ladies sewing for the poor included Instructions for Cutting out Apparel for the Poor,Full

Creating Consumers: Gender, Class and the Family Sewing Machine

Nancy Page Fernandez

Source: The Culture of Sewing. Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking 1999

Book chapter

During the mid-nineteenth century, urban American women began to participate in new buying activities as the household shifted from a site of production to one of consumption. (Ulrich 1980; Cowan 1983; Jensen 1988; Clark 1990; Boydston 1990) Middle-class women’s increasing consumer roles threatened the ideals of Victorian womanhood and challenged male economic privilege and household authority. (Leach 1984; Peiss 1986) In contrast to the antebellum feminine ideals of piety, purity, domesticity an

Homeworking and the Sewing Machine in the British Clothing Industry 1850–1905

Andrew Godley

Source: The Culture of Sewing. Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking 1999

Book chapter

A series of patents granted in the United States in the late 1840s and early 1850s formed the key components of the early sewing machine. The patent owners combined to form a patent-pool from 1856 to 1877, which determined the early structure of the sewing machine manufacturing industry. (Hounshell 1984: 67;Davies 1976: 5–12)The following section is drawn from Godley (1996). The principal manufacturers – Wheeler and Wilson, Willcox and Gibbs, Grover and Baker, and Singer – quickly established the

Making Modern Women, Stitch by Stitch: Dressmaking and Women’s Magazines in Britain 1919–39

Fiona Hackney

Source: The Culture of Sewing. Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking 1999

Book chapter

‘The entire affair of the sewing lesson seemed to me infinitely ridiculous. I thought longingly of my Mother running up dresses on her little old sewing machine, but nobody mentioned sewing machines here; you were expected to learn to sew by hand. It was part of your education.’

Home Economics and Home Sewing in the United States 1870–1940

Sally I. Helvenston and Margaret M. Bubolz

Source: The Culture of Sewing. Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking 1999

Book chapter

Sewing is an art as old as mankind. Transmitted by women from century to century, it has never lost its utility or its charm. Mother taught daughter; neighbor taught neighbor. As an attainment, it constitutes, for women and men alike, a lore all its own.

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